Geological classification

How is a diamond processed to make a diamond?

Diamond production requires precision equipment, the technological process is complex, and processing is very difficult for humans. The technology of diamond processing does not change much over time, but is constantly being updated, and new forms of cutting are appearing. Complex types of cutting make it possible to achieve not only a unique play of light, but also to preserve expensive material. It depends on the cutter what the final product will be like. Exactly how the cutting is done is very important for the gemstone. Before choosing the desired cut, they think about the decision for a long time and calculate all the options. The question that often arises is whether the diamond will be larger or of better quality. The cutter must make a compromise decision and cut the stone as profitably as possible. A person dealing with such valuable material simply must have a steady hand, because a mistake can literally be costly. The technology of stone processing begins with the study of the stone, its defects and features, then the stone is marked for further sawing and polishing. During these procedures, the size of the final diamond is outlined, then the diamond is ground, sharpened, faceted, polished and finally washed, giving the finished product its appearance. At the stage of production analysis, the main methods and areas of work are determined. All diamonds are distributed by weight, and each one is treated individually. It is at this stage that the “fate” of the stone is determined, what it will be in the future. Its final cost, cut shape and weight are predicted. Next, markings are applied to the diamond so that it is clear how to cut and polish it. This point is very important, as it helps determine the future facets of the diamond. This is done in order to preserve the stone as much as possible. Next it is sawed. When sawing, the diamond is divided into several parts, and some defects are removed. This is followed by a polishing process, during which excess and defective areas of the stone are removed, after which the semi-finished diamond is subjected to roughening. Peeling is perhaps the most important process in processing; the stone is ground, the excess is removed, and it becomes almost ready. Cutting and polishing are processes that can be combined to give a diamond its shine and final shape. Cutting is carried out both by humans and with the help of machines and is the most complex and labor-intensive in the entire production process. A huge contribution to the cost of a diamond is the quality of the cut. The main facets are gradually applied to the diamond, the area of ​​which is larger than the others, smaller edges are gradually added, and at the end the smallest facets are added. The edges must be smooth, for maximum refraction of light rays, everything must be precise and symmetrical. For maximum precision of execution, cutting machines are used – programmed machines quickly and accurately perform cutting without spoiling the stone and without performing unnecessary actions, like a person. For final grinding, linseed oil is used, and in the initial stages, diamond grinding discs can be used, it turns out that a diamond is cut with a diamond. Which is not surprising, because there is nothing harder than it and grinding it with anything else is ineffective. The entire stage is completed by washing: the finished stone is removed from dirt, industrial oils and dust, then boiled in a special solution, washed with sulfuric acid, and then with distilled water. After all the processes, the diamond becomes absolutely clean and can be considered a finished product. The finished diamond is evaluated by determining weight, clarity, color and presence of defects. All final products are sorted by quality in accordance with international classification.

About diamonds

Diamond color
The most important characteristic that affects its appearance. Diamond clarity
Read about inclusions in diamonds and their purity, characteristics that affect their value. Diamond weight
Measured in carats, a small unit of measurement that corresponds to 0,2 grams. Cut quality
Cut quality is one of the most important characteristics of a diamond. Certificates
Our company can use diamonds with GIA, HRD and IGI certificates. Cut shape
The shape of a diamond determines its unique properties. I don’t think it’s worth talking about how hard a diamond is. Everyone already knows that diamond is the hardest substance found in nature. But at the same time, everyone knows that diamonds are cut, polished, faceted, and polished. How? What can handle this super hard substance? Only the diamond itself. The fact that if you rub one rough diamond against another, their edges are polished and the brilliance of both increases, was noticed in ancient India. In Europe, diamond cutting began much later, in . In the middle of the 15th century, the jeweler of the Duke of Burgundy, Ludwig van Berkem, first cut a diamond, which later received the name “Sancy”. In the 410th century, they learned to saw diamonds. The first saws were iron wire, the surface of which was carved (saturated) with diamond powder. Sawing large diamonds took a long time: for example, the Regent diamond, which weighed XNUMX carats, took about two years to saw, consuming a huge amount of diamond powder. Nowadays, diamonds are cut on special machines using rapidly rotating bronze disks with a thickness of 0,05-0,07 mm. A suspension of diamond powder is fed onto the discs. Modern installations provide for the use of ultrasonic, electrical discharge, laser and other types of processing to intensify diamond cutting. The most difficult and responsible process in making diamonds from diamonds is cutting. It is produced using a rapidly rotating disk made of copper alloy, into which small diamonds are pressed, or a cast iron disk, into the surface of which diamond powder diluted in burdock or olive oil is rubbed. At the same time, the shape of the gemstone and the arrangement of the faces in it are made in such a way that the incident light does not pass through the stone, but, having undergone complete reflection from the inner surfaces of the faces, returns back, providing a “play” of light. Diamond cutting is an extremely complex and labor-intensive process. Large stones take months to cut, while unique ones take several years. The weight of the diamond from this operation is reduced by half or three times, and its value increases proportionally. Therefore, before starting to cut large diamonds, they carefully calculate the shape of the future diamond, which will provide the best “game” and allow maximum preservation of the mass of the original stone. Nowadays, computers are used for this purpose, which make the task as easy as possible. It would seem that diamond is a flawless stone. But it also has its drawbacks.

  • It is chemically active towards iron and nickel. At elevated temperatures, it forms interstitial solutions with them and is destroyed. That is, it is impossible to cut steel with a diamond at high speed.
  • Diamond is powerless even against soft iron. As the iron heats up during the cutting process, it begins to dissolve carbon in large quantities. Thus, it “eats” the hardest material in the world.

However, any disadvantage can be turned into an advantage. This simple chemical reaction can be used to process diamonds. This property of an impregnable diamond allows it to be easily cut with hot steel wire.

If you apply an iron cutter heated to 1000 °C to a diamond, it will begin to dissolve carbon, plunging deep into the diamond at a speed of up to 0,3 mm per hour. By changing the shape of the cutter head, complex parts can be made from diamonds – for example, bushings, gears and other complex-shaped products that cannot be made in any other way.

In principle, this article could be written on a diamond, if only there were a diamond of the appropriate size and a red-hot nail! For those who doubt it, we suggest looking at the collection of the largest diamonds exhibited at the Israeli Diamond Exchange.

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