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How to determine the name of a stone from a photo?

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Classification of valuable minerals

  • emerald;
  • diamond;
  • rubies;
  • alexandrite;
  • sapphires.

To weigh such products, a special unit is used – the carat, equal to 0,2 grams.

Colored stones and their features

Ruby is a subspecies of corundum, the bright color of which is given by impurities of iron and chromium. Color ranges from rich pink to deep red. It stands out from the rest with a special brilliance, which, apart from it, is present only in diamonds. On the Mohs scale it has a hardness of 9. It is considered an adornment of kings and rulers and that not every person can cope with its energy.

Alexandrite – a very rare, expensive variety of chrysoberyl with a pronounced glass luster. The price is comparable to diamonds and rubies. His highlight is that he changes like a chameleon. In daylight it is greenish, but in artificial light it takes on a reddish tint. There is a very beautiful metaphor for its definition – during the day it is an emerald, and in the evening it is an amethyst.

Color depends on the deposit:

  • The best specimens are mined in the Urals. They have the highest contrast during color transitions.
  • Those obtained in India turn bluish-green during the day.
  • In Brazilian, the transitions of shades are less noticeable; in the first half of the day it has an olive tint.
  • Those obtained from the deposits of Sri Lanka look better in daylight, as they are quite dark, brownish.

Diamond – this is a king stone, cut, it already becomes a diamond. It is the cut that makes it shine so much that it shows the miracle of nature in all its glory. This mineral has a high refractive index and dispersion of light rays. Therefore, how exactly to cut it in order to show it in all its splendor is now often calculated on a computer. Only 25% of the mined raw materials are subject to cutting. Samples that do not have jewelry value are used in industry as abrasives.

Russian ones, mined in Yakutia, are highly valued on the international market. The stone is hard but brittle, almost 100 percent carbon. The rest is impurities, including those that determine color. There are very few pink, yellow, blue options, but they exist. Dark red ones are considered the rarest, purple ones are even more difficult to get. Black diamonds stand apart; previously they were considered production waste. Now they are used to make jewelry that looks very original.

Sapphire is a transparent corundum of rich blue or light blue color. In addition to the traditional colors, there are pink, green, red and even colorless. There is also a star-shaped coloring, which looks very impressive. The mineral is distinguished from ruby ​​by the presence of titanium and iron, which give it a blue tint.

There are no industrial-scale deposits in Russia; there are small deposits in the Urals and the Kola Peninsula. The Ural ones have a grayish tint, while the Khibiny ones have a greenish tint. Those mined in Australia are dark blue, almost black.

Artificial sapphires began to be produced in 1904, they are used in various industries:

  • dentistry;
  • machine tool industry;
  • production of mobile phones and others.

Emerald – one of the varieties of beryl, which has always been highly valued. The stone is grass-green in color, which is explained by the presence of chromium or vanadium oxide. The quality of the product is determined by its uniform color, transparency and shade saturation. A bright green pebble with splashes will cost more than a clean but pale one. Large specimens are valued more expensive than diamonds; the best are considered to be those mined in Colombia.

The mineral is resistant to aggressive environments, but loses its original color when heated to seven hundred degrees. It is considered soft because its hardness on the Mohs scale is only 7-8. Therefore, it should not be stored with harder sapphires or diamonds, which may leave scratches on the surface of the emerald.

Amber is a hardened resin of coniferous trees of a yellow, orange or brownish hue. Significant deposits are located on the Baltic Sea coast. In nature, it is found in the form of irregularly shaped lumps; inside there may be a stuck plant or insect.

Pearl is formed inside the shells of some mollusks when exposed to sand and consists of 86 percent calcium carbonate. A grain of sand that ends up in the shell gradually becomes overgrown with mother-of-pearl. After about 12 years, a pea-shaped pearl is formed. The color varies depending on the deposit – from classic white to red, gold and black. Pearls formed in the sea are of particular value; they are distinguished by their smooth surface and regular geometric shape. River ones are smaller, with roughness. Currently, cultured pearls are mainly used.

Jewelry with alexandrite

Alexandrite can change color like a chameleon

Diamond cuts for jewelry

Rough and processed diamonds

Bright green emerald is the most prized

Products with emerald

Ruby is considered the stone of kings

Traditional colored sapphire

The most famous amber deposits are near the Baltic Sea

Decoration with amber

What stones are considered precious: everyday classification

In everyday life, gems are often referred to as such, that is, rare, expensive formations with a pleasant color. The most expensive specimens in most cases have an ordered crystal structure. Of course, this does not apply to pearls, which grow inside a shell, but are nevertheless valuable. But ruby ​​and sapphire have almost the same formula and are varieties of corundum. They differ in color, which is caused by impurities.

The appearance of semi-precious and precious stones is determined by their chemical composition. Since existing varieties have different chemical compositions and crystal structures, they are divided into appropriate groups. Gems include topaz, garnet, carnelian, and malachite. Officially, they are not classified as valuable species, but the cost of rare color specimens can be really high.

Gems are not only minerals. The organic origin of amber is the resin of trees, pearls, that of jet is petrified wood, and coral is formed from invertebrate animals. The most popular popular classification of which stones are considered precious is the degree of transparency. The more valuable ones include transparent options – diamond, topaz and others. To less – turquoise, lapis lazuli, malachite, jasper. This division is largely correct, because ornamental specimens are mostly opaque.

Minerals for jewelry

In order to be mounted in gold, silver, platinum, the best and most spectacular specimens are selected. Of course, the most prestigious are diamonds, rubies, and sapphires. Garnets, aquamarine, London topaz, pearls, and zircon are often used as inserts.

But you can also find jewelry and ornamental minerals such as jade, quartz, rock crystal, turquoise, and lapis lazuli on the shelves of specialized stores. Rare varieties of jade or jadeite are worth no less than diamonds. And for those who consider the purchase of such jewelry as an investment for a rainy day, the price may not be important at all.

What is used in jewelry fakes

Rarely found species, such as emeralds or alexandrites, are more profitable to obtain through chemical synthesis. Synthetic analogues are produced in large quantities at factories, and they do not have impurities and can be transparent, like glass. Such options are cheaper, which means that even if you have a limited budget, you can buy a product with large inserts.

There are ways in the store to distinguish an original from a counterfeit product if you know some of the features of the selected stone. For example, when considering the naturalness of a ruby, it is necessary to take into account the main signs of which stones are genuine and precious:

  • Transparency – a cloudy specimen cannot be real; at best, it is a garnet that they are trying to pass off as it.
  • Natural hardness will only allow a diamond to scratch it. If it is scratched on the side edge of the coin, then it is an artificial analogue.
  • If a fragment of colored glass is very similar to the material being studied, then most likely the object of study is also made of glass.
  • Another way is to carefully move the test sample along the glass. It should leave a small scratch, but it shouldn’t leave a red mark. Softer minerals colored with dye have this property.
  • To determine authenticity, you can pour a drop of lemon juice on the surface. A real ruby ​​will not become cloudy.
  • When examined under a magnifying glass, small inclusions are detected; only a synthetic analogue can be perfectly clean.
  • In an authentic sample, the shade does not change in daylight or natural light.
  • Since it can be difficult to determine authenticity on your own, in such a situation it is better to contact a professional jeweler.

Hydrothermal stones practically replicate natural stones in their crystal lattice and chemical composition. For their production, the same temperatures and conditions are created as those required in nature. The basis is particles of natural mineral, which are mixed with reagents to obtain a large specimen. Such a product does not imitate the original, but almost completely replicates it, so it cannot be considered a cheap fake. This is more of a budget analogue, which is brighter and has no defects.

By far the most common material for counterfeiting is glass. The best characteristics are found in glass imitation – “rhinestone”. In the 19th century, German jeweler Georg Strasz developed a unique recipe: 38,2% silicon oxide, 53,0% lead oxide and 8,8% potash. Unlike natural stones, they are fragile, do not have a crystalline structure, and are “warmer” to the touch.

Plastic is also common as an imitation. For example, the famous “Mallorca”, artificial pearls produced on the island of the same name in the Mediterranean Sea, was invented 120 years ago by Edouard Hoche. These pearls are distinguished by their ideal shape and shine.

When purchasing, it is important to evaluate, at least by eye, whether the material is natural or not. Let’s figure out what minerals there are that imitate such a precious stone as a diamond. This:

  • Cubic zirconia is zirconium dioxide, which is a material of completely artificial origin, first synthesized in the USSR. The very name of the stone encrypts the place of its invention – the Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (FIAN). Another well-known option for zirconium dioxide is Austrian Swarovski crystals.
  • Moissanite is a rare formation of natural origin, which in recent years has begun to be replaced by a cheaper synthetic analogue – carborundum.
  • Grown in a laboratory – created under the influence of high temperatures. Almost indistinguishable from natural diamonds. However, its disadvantage is the high production price, which is close in cost to natural stones.

You need to pay attention to the presence of a certificate for the jewelry and the parameters indicated on the tag. The data on the tag is deciphered as follows – the numerator indicates the purity of the mineral, and the denominator indicates defectiveness; the smaller the numbers, the better. Visually you can determine the absence of chips and scratches.

Natural stones are processed to improve their properties: color, transparency, neutralize inclusions and cracks. This type of processing is called “refinement”. Thus, almost all rubies and sapphires are subjected to heat treatment, because. in their natural state they are very dark. Some crystals have cracks, which, during refining, are filled with glass melt and other materials. This significantly improves the appearance of the stones, however, products with such stones, for example, cannot be subjected to ultrasonic cleaning. Under the influence of high temperatures and pressures, diamonds can change color to rare yellow, pink and even blue colors.

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