Stones by zodiac signs

How to find out if there are stones in the body?

A pathological condition characterized by the appearance of stones in the kidneys is called kidney stones. Nephrologists and urologists treat this pathology. This disease is treated by: Kidney stones are a common disease in urological practice, manifested by the deposition of salt stones (calculi) in the kidney tissue. Doctors also call this pathology nephrolithiasis. Nephrologists include aching pain in the lumbar region and painful urination as characteristic symptoms of kidney stones. Patients often notice the appearance of urine with a reddish tint. Blood in the urine with nephrolithiasis is caused by damage to the mucous membranes of organs from stones. The reason for the formation of kidney stones may be due to poor diet, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and hereditary factors. Kidney stones are found in patients of any age. Men are more often susceptible to this pathology. Typically, stones form in only one kidney, but in approximately 15% of cases, bilateral nephrolithiasis is observed. Penetration of stones into the underlying parts of the urinary tract can cause urolithiasis affecting the ureters, bladder or urethra. Kidney stone disease often recurs with re-formation of stones after treatment, however, following the diet and doctor’s prescriptions helps to avoid new cases of stone formation.

Symptoms of kidney stones

  • Spread of lumbar pain to the abdomen, ribs, perineum and genitals;
  • Sharp pain during urination;
  • Discharge of reddish or brown urine with an unpleasant odor;
  • Frequent urge to urinate;
  • Increased body temperature, chills;
  • Excretion of urine in small portions and lack of relief;
  • Bloating.

In many patients, nephrolithiasis does not manifest symptoms, so the disease can only be accurately identified using special diagnostic methods. The presence of fever and chills may indicate the development of inflammation and infection.

Causes of kidney stones

The formation of kidney stones can be caused by genetic factors, high levels of calcium in the blood, obesity, poor diet, insufficient fluid intake and certain medications. It is believed that the main reason for the formation of stones is a change in the chemical composition of urine: too many salts appear in the liquid, resulting in urine crystallization. Nephrologists know several main types of kidney stones, the chemical composition of which makes it possible to clarify the cause of the disease.

  • The formation of calcium stones due to excessive accumulation of calcium oxalate in the body. This salt regularly enters the body with food and is secreted by liver cells. Eating certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and chocolate promotes the formation of calcium stones;
  • Formation of struvite stones due to chronic kidney infection.
  • The appearance of urate stones consisting of uric acid. The cause of this form of nephrolithiasis may be insufficient water intake, excessive sweating, frequent urination and the intake of large amounts of protein food into the body;
  • Formation of cystine stones against the background of a hereditary disease (cystinuria);
  • Taking anticonvulsants and excess vitamin D intake into the body;
  • Pathologies affecting metabolism and hormonal regulation of the body.

Determining the cause of nephrolithiasis is important for selecting effective treatment for the disease and preventing relapses.

Get a consultation

If you experience these symptoms, we recommend that you make an appointment with your doctor. Timely consultation will prevent negative consequences for your health.

You can find out more about the disease, prices for treatment and make an appointment with a specialist by calling:

Kidney stones – a pathological condition caused by a violation of water-salt metabolism in the body and changes in blood composition

Oxalate. They are formed from calcium salts of oxalic acid. The structure of the stones is dense, black-gray in color, with a prickly surface. In contact with the surface of the mucosa, the spiky edges of the stone easily scratch it, turning dark brown or black with blood. Such contact causes pain in the lower back, groin area, genitals, and inner thighs. Due to oxalate damage to the mucous membrane and bleeding, urine may turn dark yellow or red.

Calcium oxalate stones are fairly easy to detect using x-rays or ultrasound. But due to their hardness and dense structure, oxalates do not dissolve and are not excreted from the body. In order to get rid of such kidney stones, lithotripsy is performed – remote or contact. This is a non-surgical method of destroying stones using various types of energy effects. In the case of large oxalate stones, surgical intervention is prescribed.

Phosphate. The main component is calcium salts of phosphate acid. The composition is soft, with a smooth surface, the color is light gray. The main reason for the appearance is a violation of metabolism and acid-base balance towards alkali. The pH rises above 6,2. If you find light, loose flakes in your urine, this is a sure sign of phosphate stones in the kidneys. Phosphate stones are easy to crush and dissolve.

Urate. The main component of urates is uric acid or its salts. The stones are yellow or brown, smooth, and hard in consistency. Urates occur in various places in the urinary system and are difficult to detect by x-ray. The most reliable way to identify urate stones is a urine test. To remove urate stones from the kidney, drug treatment, as well as a diet with plenty of fluids and moderate exercise, are successfully used.

Carbonate. The main material is calcium salts of carbonic acid. The color of the stones is white, the consistency is soft, the surface is smooth, and they can be of completely different shapes.

Cystine. Contains sulfur compounds of the amino acid cystine. The stones are yellowish-white, round in shape, soft and smooth. The cause of cystine stones in the kidneys is cystinuria, a congenital metabolic abnormality in which the level of cystine in the urine is constantly higher than normal. Cystine is determined by urine examination and has the appearance of hexagonal crystals. Cystine stones are also well diagnosed using ultrasound. Treatment of cystine stones is medicinal, using drugs that stop the conversion of cysteine ​​to cystine. If large stones are detected, surgical intervention is recommended.

Cholesterol. The main component is cholesterol. The stones are black in color and soft in consistency. They crumble very much, so they are dangerous.

Xanthine. They are formed when the metabolism of the enzyme xanthine oxidase is disrupted, which leads to disruption of the mechanism for converting xanthine into uric acid. Xanthine is poorly soluble in water and is excreted unchanged from the body. The stones contain virtually no calcium and cannot be seen with x-rays. But thanks to their soft structure, xanthine stones are easily identified by ultrasound.

Protein. Protein kidney stones contain fibrin, salts and bacteria. The stones are white, small, flat, soft in consistency and of different shapes.

Struvite. Occurs in an infected alkaline environment. Bacteria act on urea, which leads to an alkaline reaction and precipitation of carbonates, magnesium, ammonium, phosphorus, from which stones are formed. A urine test may reveal coffin-lid shaped crystals. Drug treatment is ineffective in most cases. To remove such stones, shock wave kidney lithotripsy or open surgery is used if the stones are large.

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