Therapeutic properties

What color can a garnet stone be?

Garnet has high density and mechanical strength.
Hardness on the Mohs scale 6 – 7,5. These qualities contribute to the accumulation of garnets (mainly pyrope and almandine) in lake and coastal-marine placers. There are different versions of the origin of the name pomegranate. According to one of them, the stone received its name from the Latin word “granatus”, granular, reminiscent of the grains of a pomegranate fruit, which was also called the Phoenician apple. According to other sources, the concept of “pomegranate” came into use around 1270. The medieval alchemist Albert Magnus contributed to this. Nature has given the pomegranate a wide variety of forms. The edges of the stone reveal wonderful geometry: here you can find rhombuses, trapezoids, triangles, pentagons, even narrow strips that combine in an incredible way in space. Among the garnet crystals there are amazing specimens with 36, 48, 72 facets! It is noteworthy that garnets crystallize in symmetrical and compact forms, as if deliberately approaching a faceted ball. Garnet is rich in its shades and varied shine, which varies from glassy to resinous, diamond-like in demantoid.
Garnets are a large group of minerals from the class of silicates, similar in structure and properties, divided into 2 more groups according to their chemical composition.

1) pyrope, almandine, spessartine (group: pyralspite)

Only among the garnets of the pyralspite group can one find rare examples with the effect of a cat’s eye (running stripe) and star pattern (rays). Pyrope. Pyropes are the most beautiful of the red garnets. The name comes from the Greek. “pyropos” – like fire. Old names: Bohemian, Cape, Arizona ruby, carbuncle Color: red, reddish-violet, red-brown, dark red, red with a yellowish tint. Extraction: Czech Republic (Bohemia), Tanzania, Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Norway, Russia. In Russia, pyrope is mined in Yakutia. Jewelry pyrope has a red-violet and crimson hue, and they are 1-2 mm in size in diameter. Yakut garnets of yellow-orange color are also used, covered with a thin matte crust, like a blanket, which, when removed, reveals wonderful warm shades of the stone. In Tanzania and Sri Lanka, pyrope garnets with a color-changing effect (Alexandrite effect) are found. The color of these stones varies from bluish-green or blue in daylight to red or purplish-red in artificial light. (Article “Blue Garnet”) Rhodolite. Intermediate link of the pyrope-almandine series. Color: pink to purple-pink. Rhodolite forms good crystals up to 2 cm. Mining: USA (North Carolina. In the 19th century, the mines were practically worked out). Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Madagascar. Jewelry rhodolite is mined along with abrasive garnets. Almandine. The most common garnet, but jewelry stones are not so common. Found in many types of rocks. Its name is associated with the distorted name of the area Alabanda in Asia Minor, where these stones were processed in ancient times. Old names: carbuncle (same as pyrope), anthrax, karfunkelstein, oriental garnet. In Germany they are called Tyrolean garnets, and in the Czech Republic – Kollin garnets. Color: red, purple-red. Noble garnet (the color of Burgundy wine), falum (red-brown), series (violet-red), ordinary garnet (dense red, almost black). Extraction: Russia, Sri Lanka, India, Brazil, US territory, Canada, Tanzania, Russia, Zambia, Madagascar, Austria, Japan. The size of the crystals reaches several tens of centimeters, but jewelry crystals are small – only 5-6 mm. Sri Lanka produces the best almandines, followed by India and Brazil. Good star almandines are found in Idaho. Russia has known almandines since the 18th century. They were given to Russia by the Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Southern Urals, and Eastern Siberia. Spessartine. A widespread garnet, however jewelry specimens are not found so often. The garnet got its name from the Spessart plateau in Bavaria, where it was first discovered. Color: orange, red-orange, yellow-brown, bright orange (this most valuable spessartine is called “mandarin”) Liquid inclusions are found in spessartines. Mining of jewelry spessartine: Russia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Norway, Sweden, Italy. It does not form independent deposits (it occurs along with granite rocks). Malaya. Discovered in Tanzania in 1979. In terms of gemological characteristics, it differs from other garnets, therefore, in essence, it is a mixture of pyrope and spessartine, “flavored” with grossular. Name: from the Swahili language the name can be translated as “hermit”, “outcast”. Garnet, but not that one. Color: light red, slightly pinkish-orange, red-orange, yellowish-orange. Malaya can have any shades of colors characteristic of pyrope, spessartine and grossular. Some samples noticeably change their color when moving from natural to artificial light. This effect can be explained by residual amounts of chromium and/or vanadium. Features: Malaya during growth can capture other minerals (crystals of rutile, pyrite, apatite). Such inclusions may be visible to the eye, but more often they are hidden or visible under high magnification. Size: usually does not exceed 10 cm. Extraction: Tanzania, Kenya.

2) uvarovite, grossular, andradite (group: ugrandites).

Uvarovite. Uvarovite is a very beautiful garnet. It got its name in honor of Count S.S. Uvarov – President of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Uvarov was at the head of the Academy from 1818 to 1855. In nature, it is found in the form of small brushes or very small jewelry crystals. The entire crust of uvarovite consists of tiny, 1-2 mm crystals, which are beautiful with their ideal cut, which is why at the slightest turn they emit a continuous sparkling shine. Extraction: Russia, USA (Oregon), Canada, Finland, Norway, South Africa. Uvarovite was discovered in 1832 in the Urals. The Saranovsky mine gave this miracle to the world. Since 1957, the Saranovskaya-Rudnaya mine began supplying uvarovite brushes. One of the photographs shows crystals of uvarovite, magnified many times. Grossular. The pomegranate got its name because of its greenish tint, reminiscent of the color of gooseberries, or “grossularia” in Latin. Crystals are not very transparent, so green stones are rarely used as jewelry material. Yellowish and orange garnets are used for jewelry making. The most valuable light green grossular is mined in Pakistan. It is sometimes called Pakistani emerald. Transparent greenish-brown grossular from Yakutia is also valuable. Beautiful yellow crystals were found in Canada (Quebec). a) grossular tsavorite (tsavorite) It got its name from the Tsavo National Park on the border of Tanzania and Kenya. Color: pale green, grassy, ​​deep green. Production: Tanzania, Kenya Tanzania was the first to “give” tsavorite to humans in 1967. It was discovered by a Scottish gemologist named Campbell R. Bridges, a consultant for Tiffany & Co. Later, in 1971, he was found in Kenya. Tsavorite relatively recently acquired the status of a precious stone. The term “tsavorite” was coined by Tiffany & Co. in the 1970s. This green stone has become one of the most expensive garnets due to its rarity combined with effective marketing that the company began in 1974. b) leucogranate (colorless grossular) Very rare garnet. It got its name from the Latin word “leuko” – white. Color: colorless, pale pink, grayish-white. Found in Canada, Mexico, USA, Burma (Myanmar). The photo shows a leucogranate from Burma. Color with a subtle hint of pink. c) hydrogarnet (hydrogrossular) Opaque or translucent garnet. Translucent in thin chips. Other names: Transvaal jade, African jade Color: whitish, pinkish (rare), bright green, dark green with yellowish tints. Extraction: New Zealand, Pakistan, Russia, Mexico, South Africa. In Russia, hydrogarnet is found in Kazakhstan and Eastern Siberia. Very similar to jade, jadeite and serpentine. The Eastern Sayan Mountains sometimes produce yellow-pink hydrogrossular (purple jade). The top photo shows the same purple jade from the eastern Sayan Mountains. d) grossular hessonite The name of the stone comes from the Greek word “gesson” – smaller, weaker. Other name: cinnamon stone Color: honey-yellow, honey-orange, brown, brown-red, yellow, orange, red. Mining: Sri Lanka, Alps, Urals (Akhmatov mines). Hessonite can be found in abundance in sediments of the Polozhikha River (a tributary of the Rezh River in the Sverdlovsk region). Hessonite pebbles are mixed with the same small rubies and sapphires. Andradite. Garnet got its name from the Portuguese mineral specialist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva (1763-1838). Andradite was described in 1868. He was a professor of geology and spent many years in the Portuguese colony in Brazil. When Brazil gained independence, Andrade received the post of Minister of the Interior and Foreign Affairs. Andradite itself is not very interesting as a jewelry stone, but it is in demand as a decorative and collection material. Much more remarkable are the varieties of this stone: demantoid, topazolite, melanite. Once like a common garnet, andradite was disdained. And only with the discovery of the demantoid the stone again took its place among the outstanding precious stones. a) Demantoid The most valuable jewelry garnet. And the softest of all pomegranates. It got its name (from German diamond – diamond) for the magnificent play of light and unique shine. Green color. Shades: emerald, May green, yellow, pistachio, olive. Other names: Ural (Siberian) chrysolite, Ural (Bobrovsky) emerald, Ural olivine, olivine garnet. Such names are misleading and should not be used.
Extraction: Russia (Middle Urals, Chukotka), Italy, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, USA, Namibia. After the revolution of 1917, stone mining was not carried out in Russia. Demantoid “revealed” to the Sysert peasants in 1874. This happened in the Middle Urals in gold placers on the Bobrovka River. Sometimes in the demantoid you can find inclusions similar to needles. These are bissolite fibers. Such specimens are wonderful and attractive in their own way. b) topazolite A transparent variety of andradite. It got its name due to its similarity with yellow topaz. Color: yellow, honey yellow, lemon golden. Found in: Italy (Alps), Switzerland. c) melanitis A variety of andradite containing titanium. The name comes from the Greek. “melas” – black. Found in: Italy, Germany, France, USA Black garnet is widely used in the manufacture of various products for the Catholic Church, including rosaries. Processed melanite has good hardness and shine, which allows it to be successfully used in jewelry. Melanite is a good alternative to the more expensive black spinel. Nowadays, garnet is a whole group of minerals. They have a similar crystal structure, but different chemical composition and physical properties. The appearance of garnets also varies – the stone can be burgundy, green, bluish, colorless, black and even with an “Alexandrite effect”. Therefore, in modern gemology, next to the name there is a qualifying name (“Pyrop Garnet”, “Grossular Garnet”) The main names, from the point of view of gemological science, are as follows: ✔Pyrope (magnesium aluminum silicate)
✔Almandine, iron aluminum silicate
✔Spessartine, manganese aluminum silicate
✔Uvarovite (calcium chromium silicate)
✔Grossular (calcium aluminum silicate)
✔Andradite (calcium iron silicate) In mineralogy there are 9 more names of other Garnets, but they do not form crystals of jewelry value, therefore they are not included in gemological classifications. Most people think of garnet as a red stone, but garnet comes in a wide variety of colors. Clockwise from top left: Almandine Red (Madagascar), Tsavorite Green (Tanzania), Mali Yellow (Mali), Spessartine Orange (Mozambique), Malaya Pink (Tanzania), Meralani Green (Tanzania), Pyrope Red (Cote) ‘Ivoire), green demantoid (Namibia), purple rhodolite (Mozambique) and orange hessonite (Sri Lanka). The main difficulty in gemological “diagnosis” of garnets is that most samples are intermediate, “hybrid forms” of garnets. In the event that one component significantly predominates in the composition of a garnet, for example, 80% Spessartine, such stones are usually identified by the name of the main component, it will simply be “Spessartine”. A group of pomegranates. This chart presents the members of the garnet group that are most important as gemstones. Aluminum garnets are usually red in color with higher specific gravity and hardness. Calcium elements are usually green in color and have lower hardness. rice. Types of pomegranates Garnet Almadin Garnet Pyrope Garnet Spessartine Garnet Rhodolite Pomegranate Malaya Garnet Andradite Garnet Demantoid Garnet Melanite Garnet Topazolite Grossular Garnet Garnet Hessonite leucogarnet Hydrogrossular Merelani pomegranate Mali grenades Garnet Tsavorite Garnet Uvarovit When purchasing a pomegranate, you should not strive for an exact percentage assessment of all its components. In most cases, gemological examination stops at determining the predominant species or “series”. Prices for pomegranates vary – more common varieties (such as Pyrope) are more affordable, while rare exotic species are expensive. There are a great variety of garnets, but it is important that almost all of its types are suitable for use in jewelry and are invariably in demand both among jewelers and among needlewomen.

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