Stones by zodiac signs

What diamond is in the crown of the Russian Empire?

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The ancient manuscripts said: “In the ditch of old Vikentia to the east in the Avona River they find stones of adamantine, which surpasses the Indian ones in lightness and strength” (1670); “If a warrior wears that diamond stone on the left side either in weapons or in other clothes, then he is dangerous from his adversaries) (1534). The hardness of a diamond is recorded in terms of “almazhenie” (stone polishing), “diamond” (grinder); “And when we dig up a ruby ​​stone, then it contains little blackness, and when a diamondsmith puts a diamond on his face, then it will be bright” (manuscript of 1534). The king of stones, in the figurative expression of the lyricist A.I. Kuprin, “plays with all colors, but remains transparent, like a drop of water.” A physicist will say that a rainbow is an optical phenomenon that arises as a result of the decomposition of the sun’s rays under the influence of certain atmospheric conditions: white = violet + blue + light blue + green + yellow + orange + red. This pure spectrum of light decomposition is most pronounced in diamond. The first one is official. On July 5, 1829, the serf peasant Pavel Popov, who was 14 (by the standards of the time, already an adult), working in a gold mining team, found a diamond. This happened in the Adolf log of the Krestovozdvizhensky mines of Count Adolf Polier, in the Kaiva River basin near the Bisertsky plant. The stone was only one and a half carats, but it became famous because it was the first officially registered in Russia. It was solemnly presented to Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, wife of Nicholas I. The event created a real sensation in Russia! Before this, diamonds were only imported to Russia. And only the seer Mikhailo Lomonosov claimed that in our “northern bowels” one can find deposits of the most precious stones. At the beginning of glorious deeds. In Russia, the culture of precious stones began with Peter the Great. Back in 1700, he established a special order for mining affairs in Moscow, which was replaced in 1718 by the Bergkollegium. In 1720, he sent V.N. for the Urals. Tatishchev to bring existing factories into better condition. Since the same year, information has appeared about the discovery of gems in the Urals. Peter I paid great attention to the development of mining, including the search and extraction of precious stones. A mining authority was organized in Tobolsk to manage the Siberian and Ural factories. In 1714, he founded the Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg, in which M.V. later worked. Lomonosov, V.M. Severgin and others. Subsequently, the Mineral Department of the Academy of Sciences was separated from it, transformed (in 1912) into the Mineralogical Museum of the Academy of Sciences. In 1725, Peter ordered the construction of a 40-frame mill in Peterhof for processing precious stones. In the 18th century, a number of orders decorated with diamonds were approved. During the reign of Catherine II, Russian stone-cutting art began to develop rapidly. In 1774, the Yekaterinburg lapidary factory was built on the banks of the Iset River, and a little later, in Altai, the Kolyvan grinding mill was built. Catherine II understood the art of jewelry and patronized its development in every possible way, presenting close friends with works of this creativity. In 1820-1850, many deposits of stones, including diamonds, were discovered in Russia. At this time, the best jewelers lived in St. Petersburg on Millionnaya Street, many of whom carried out orders for the royal court (Pozier, Louis Duval and others). Diamond “Orlov”. The famous diamond of a faint greenish-blue hue was found back in the mid-16th century in the famous mines of Golconda in India and ended up in the treasury of the padishah of the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan. In 1738, Delhi was captured by the Persian ruler Nadir Shah, who took all the Mughal jewelry to his capital. Soon after this, the famous diamond disappeared without a trace from the Shah’s treasury, and only 20 years later, having passed through several hands, it was discovered in the possession of the Armenian merchant Gregory Safrasu from Julfa, who sold it to Ivan Lazarev from Persia. The news of this reached the ruler of Persia and he began to force Ivan to give up the find, but he hid the treasure in his body (by making an incision on his leg and healing the wound) and began to deny the presence of the stone. He was imprisoned, but was released without finding the diamond. Then the stone was bought for 400 thousand rubles from Ivan by the Most Serene Prince Grigory Grigorievich Orlov, General-Feltzeichmester, and as a masterpiece it was presented to Catherine the Great on her name day, November 24, 1773, which was celebrated in the Winter Palace. At the same time, he acted out a scene – as if he had forgotten the gift. After a significant pause, he took out a massive case from his pocket, which contained a huge diamond. The Empress was surprised and delighted by such an unusual gift. The Orlov diamond contains 189,62 carats and is cut in the shape of a large Indian rose. There is also a version that this stone replaced the eye of the golden lion at the throne of the great Mogul, and the other eye – (Koh-i-nur) now serves as an adornment of the English crown. Appearing in the palace, the huge diamond became the decoration of the royal scepter in 1774 – a symbol of the supreme power of Russia. The scepter was ordered by Emperor Paul and was used at the holy coronation of Emperor Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II and Alexander III. At the handle in the middle and below it is decorated with two diamond hoops, and the Orlov diamond greatly enhanced the ceremonial appearance of the golden imperial scepter. The Great Imperial Russian Crown was created in 1762. It represents the height of perfection in beauty, an extraordinary number of jewels and their artistic combination. On the large ruby ​​is attached a cross consisting of five magnificent diamonds. On the front and back of the crown are two laurel branches connected at the bottom by a ribbon. The inner sides of the halves are each studded with 27 matte pearls of luxurious size and color. The arc separating the halves of the crown represents oak leaves with acorns. Above the arc at the front is a large octagonal diamond and three tonsil-shaped diamonds. The lower part is decorated with 27 large diamonds surrounded by many small ones. It is lined with a “purple velvet” cap. Catherine II decided to make this crown for the day of her coronation. Calling the court jeweler Jeremiah Pozier, she gave him her diamonds, the setting of which had gone out of fashion. The new crown was supposed to be richer in value than anything existing in Europe and weigh no more than five pounds. As a result, the weight of the crown was 1993,8 grams. The total number of diamonds is 4936, weighing 2858 carats. Researchers call the large imperial crown a hymn to a diamond and a symphony in stone, which has no equal among other European regalia! The small crown for the empress is designed in the same way as the large crown. On the arch, in the middle of the crown, there is a diamond cross, and the lower part is strewn with 22 selected diamonds. It was made by the famous court jeweler L. Duval in 1801 specifically for the coronation of Empress Elizabeth Alekseevna. Everything in the crown is amazingly proportional and balanced. The shine of diamond lace in a silver frame conveys a feeling of splendor and special significance, despite its size. Among the excellent stones on the crown, a number of large diamonds on the crown, as if hanging in the air, stand out for their clarity and size. It contains 48 large (from 2 to 9 carats) and 200 small diamonds. Total weight – 378 grams. Power is a kind of emblem-symbol that was used by the Roman emperors; represents the globe and signifies the dominion of the Caesars over the earth (orbis terrarium). In preparation for the coronation of Catherine II, it turned out that the precious stones from the power of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna had long been removed, and the gold was put into use. But, despite this, the new power was made of gold in a short time. Her hoops are made of diamond leaves. In the middle there is a large almond-shaped diamond, surrounded by diamonds on top, and on the rough large oval sapphire there is a diamond cross. The throne of Empress Maria Feodorovna was the so-called chairs of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in the decoration of which there were 876 diamonds. The crown insignia of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called is composed of large and small diamonds, while the Order of the Empress is slightly smaller than the Order of the Emperor. Diamond “Shah” – the second name of the stone is “Finger of Allah”. Weighing 88,7 carats, the yellowish-brown Shah diamond is not cut, but only polished, partially retaining its natural octahedral surfaces; It also has inscriptions engraved in Persian letters. “Shah” was found in India at the end of the 16th century. King Ahmen Nagar ordered the first inscription to be engraved on the stone: “Burkhan Nizam Shah II. 1000″ (according to our calculation this is 1591). On the second side it says: “Son of Jahangir Shah-Jahan-Shah 1051.” (according to our calculations, 1641). The third inscription is: “Lord Qajar Fah Ali Shah Sultan 1242.” (according to our chronology of 1824). This diamond is famous not only for its size, but also for its impeccable clarity with a unique brown tint. It is quite possible that the “Shah” was the stone that, according to Tavernier’s description, hung in the central part of the “Peacock Throne” and was surrounded by many emeralds and rubies. A groove 0,5 mm deep is visible on it, through which a chain passed for hanging the stone. It passed from hand to hand of feudal lords, who destroyed each other in the struggle for power. Decorated the throne of the cruelest Persian Shah Nadir, who invaded India in 1739 and plundered Delhi. The Shah Diamond was presented to the Russian government by the Persian prince Khosrev Mirza, the son of the heir to the throne Abbas Mirza, as compensation for the murder of diplomat (writer, composer) Alexander Griboedov on January 30, 1829. In belated repentance, the Persian Shah sent his grandson to settle the diplomatic scandal. He not only asked for forgiveness from Griboyedov’s mother, but also presented Emperor Nicholas I with numerous gifts, the main one of which was a historical, legendary diamond. This is such a gimmick. Gimp – thin gold and silver threads used to decorate the robes of the clergy and nobles. In Moscow in 1894, the first diamond tool workshop in Russia was founded, and even earlier, in 1881, the young K.S. Alekseev was assigned to a factory producing gold thread. Since the steel dies were wearing out quickly, he decided to replace the steel with diamond. Moscow “left-handers” learned to drill holes in diamond and began to produce dies that are not inferior in accuracy to foreign ones. At the World Exhibition in Paris in 1990, the gold gimp of the Alekseev factory received the “Grand Prix”. We know him as Stanislavsky, one of the founders of the Moscow Art Theater. Having founded the Society of Art and Literature in 1877, he took this pseudonym for himself. We are surprised, but we understand: in essence, all directions of creation are united. And they are united by Truth, Harmony, Goodness, Justice, Love. Manifested in different ways. The diamonds of words and images echo the diamonds of natural resources discovered by inquisitive and hardworking humanity. The property is luminous
Diamonds. Property of the Power.
You are magnificent. Beautiful. Right
Those edges that shine, saying:
“The Natural Fund was given to Russia for a reason!”
That is: signs, acceptance, protection.
Power, everything for which she is famous
Holy Rus’. Destined by fate
To be the Light of the world, leading you.
Walking through hard times like the Right Hand.
Holy Rus’! Diamond light flows.
Telling us: Greatness is the Palace
Sovereign! And the Father, God, protects us.
Sending your Treasures as Faith,
Sign of Creation, Mastery examples
Those jewelers. Filigree cut.
Nature’s gift was left to descendants
In the hidden chambers of History.
And the feat of those miners is sacred!

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