Geological classification

What is a transparent gem called?

Other definitions (questions) for the word “topaz” (89)

  1. Blue. attracts new friends, making its owner more sociable
  2. Transparent gemstone of various colors
  3. Gem of the Philosophers
  4. What stone did criminologists make their symbol “for help in solving” mysterious crimes?
  5. Stone of Prudence
  6. What kind of stone was given in the Middle Ages to moderate the owner’s anger?
  7. A stone that relieves anxiety
  8. One of the gems
  9. Jewelry stone
  10. Mineral
  11. Gemstone very sensitive to sulfuric acid
  12. Heavyweight stone
  13. Jeweler’s Blue Gem
  14. Stone in the best amulets against poisons
  15. Gem with blue
  16. A precious stone that in the 19th century was called the “Siberian diamond”
  17. Which gemstone helps lower blood pressure
  18. precious stone
  19. Gem with “haze”
  20. Play by French playwright Pagnol
  21. Grade III gemstone
  22. Scorpio stone
  23. Semi-precious stone that pacifies anger
  24. Stone, aluminum silicate
  25. A stone that gives men wisdom, generosity and intelligence
  26. Hitchcock film
  27. Stone that pacifies anger
  28. Precious stone
  29. Which gem became the symbol of Texas?
  30. Film by A. Hitchcock 1969
  31. Valuable stone
  32. Stone
  33. This mineral is a symbol of marital fidelity.
  34. Braganza wearing the Portuguese crown
  35. Hitchcock, film
  36. What stone did the ancient Egyptians believe that the god Ra endowed with its radiance?
  37. Precious aluminum silicate
  38. Jeweler’s blue mineral
  39. Precious silicate
  40. Blue gem
  41. Ivanov: In a dim hour, as if in smoky clouds, muddy. s smolder
  42. Blue Jewel, which can be found in the Urals
  43. Precious smoky stone
  44. Hitchcock’s Thriller (1969)
  45. m. two different stone roads bear this name: Indian topaz, yellow yacht, ruby; Siberian, heavyweight. Topaz ring
  47. Gem of those born in November
  48. Blue stone
  49. Precious mineral silicate
  50. Mineral of the subclass of island silicates, transparent gemstone
  51. Alfred Hitchcock film
  52. The famous “Brazilian princess” through the eyes of a jeweler
  53. Gemstone of various colors
  54. Precious silicate mineral
  55. Smoky pebble
  56. smoky stone
  57. Gemstone that pacifies anger
  58. Blue mineral
  59. Smoky and precious
  60. Gem
  61. Jewelry stone
  62. Valuable blue stone
  63. Formerly “Siberian diamond”
  64. Black magic stone
  65. Stone that cures madness
  66. He is able to calm the raging sea, endows men with wisdom, generosity and intelligence, and women with beauty and fertility
  67. Stone of “twins”
  68. Which stone is popular among psychologists because it helps to penetrate the darkest corners of the soul?
  69. Semiprecious stone
  70. “Siberian Diamond”
  71. Philosophers’ Stone
  72. Semi-precious stone of various colors
  73. Which stone protects those born under the sign of Sagittarius?
  74. Stone, symbol of November
  75. Hitchcock film
  76. Type of mineral classified as “Silicates”
  77. Stone for Leo
  78. One of the precious stones
  79. Smokey Gem
  80. Precious crystal – “heavyweight”
  81. Mineral whose crystals are used as gems
  82. Semi-precious stone, which is rich in granite veins in the Ilmensky Nature Reserve in the Urals
  83. What precious stone was previously called “Siberian diamond” in Rus’?
  84. Yellow gem
  85. Gem from Madness
  86. Black Magic Stone
  87. A jewel given to Natasha by Koroleva and sung by her
  88. November birthstone
  89. Which stone protects those born under the sign of Sagittarius
  90. The fatal stone from the monastic detective story “One Extra Corpse” by Englishwoman Ellis Peters
  1. a mineral of the silicate class, individual crystals of which, due to their beautiful color and shine, are used as precious stones ◆ Each leaf, each petal is a separate emerald, yakhont, pearl or topaz; and sometimes you count up to a hundred such stones for one branch of flowers, and there are hundreds like this branch on panels and lattices! Helena Blavatsky, “Letters from the Caves and Wilds of Hindustan”, 2001

Meaning of the word

TOPAZ, -A, Muzhkoy road
A mineral of various colors from the silicate group, individual crystals of which, transparent and shiny, are used as precious stones. Smoky topaz. Ring with topaz.

Topaz – a semi-precious stone, a mineral from the group of basic aluminum silicates. Crystallizes in the rhombic system, rhombic-bipyramidal type of symmetry.

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Types of Gemstones What the law says: list of precious stones Historical background Top 10 gems By what criteria is a stone classified as precious? How to distinguish real gemstones from laboratory ones Interesting facts about gemstones Stones such as diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires are considered precious, but is the list limited to these four? From this article you will learn what kind of precious stones there are, what their characteristics and properties are and why they are so expensive.

Types of Gemstones

There are several classifications in force in Russia, one of the oldest is Bauer-Fersman, adopted at the beginning of the 3th century. But it is inaccurate, so you should not rely on it. A more precise classification belongs to E. Ya. Kievlenko; it includes many modern stones, including those discovered in the XNUMXth century. According to Kievlenko, all precious stones are divided into XNUMX large classes:

  • actual precious stones: four orders;
  • jewelry stones: two orders;
  • ornamental stones.

Let us consider the orders of the precious stones themselves, the number of which is much more than four, as is commonly believed.

Demantoid (green garnet)

All other tourmalines

Colored sapphires (all colors except blue)

Noble white and fire opal

Noble black opal

This classification does not, for example, include stones that were discovered in the second half of the 20th century. Thus, tanzanite, if assessed by market value, could have the status of a first-order precious stone, and in terms of jewelry properties – second order. In general, any division can be called conditional.

In the West, there is no provision for dividing precious stones into orders; they are all called gems or gems. That is, these are stones that have jewelry properties; they can be cut and used to make jewelry.

Previously, all precious stones of the third and fourth order, and sometimes even the second, were conventionally called semi-precious, but this is incorrect. The international community does not recognize such a division, since it discredits minerals in the eyes of buyers.

What the law says: list of precious stones

Federal Law No. 41 of March 26.03.1998, XNUMX mentions only one order of precious stones. According to the definition, precious stones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, alexandrites, natural pearls in raw and processed form. Unique amber formations can also be equated to them.

In all cases, we are talking only about natural samples, and not about materials of artificial origin, even if they have similar properties. The law does not provide any other classifications, which gives grounds for jewelry chains to use the outdated and incorrect term “semi-drags.”

Historical background

In ancient times, various materials were classified as precious stones depending on their external characteristics and symbolic meaning. Thus, the list included pearls, amber and coral, which are organic materials.

Many minerals that were considered precious in ancient times are no longer so. The Old Testament mentions 12 precious stones decorating the breastplate of the Jewish high priest: diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire, carbuncle, topaz, amethyst, agate, yakhont (corundum), onyx, peridot, jasper. In the old days, all red stones were called carbuncles.

Top 10 gems

It’s no secret what first-order gemstones look like, but not everyone has an idea about the rest of the minerals from the list below.


Diamonds have always been the most desirable among precious stones. As you know, this is a mineral with a standard hardness of 10 points. There are colorless and colored (yellow, pink, blue, red, etc.) diamonds. The latter, especially red and blue ones, are valued more expensive than others.


The deep green color of emeralds is so luxurious that it has given rise to a new color term, “emerald.” The stone is a representative of the beryl group. Colombian emeralds are especially prized. In the Russian Empire, only members of the imperial family had the right to wear these stones. Due to the fragility of the mineral, not every setter will undertake to work with it. Since these stones generally have many inclusions, defect-free samples of a dense tone weighing 5 carats or more are more expensive than diamonds.


Red corundums are called rubies. Rubies from Myanmar are considered to be of the highest quality; it is there that stones of the color “pigeon’s blood” are mined. And in 2015, a new ruby ​​deposit was discovered in Greenland.

Blue sapphire

Mineralogists call only the blue variety of corundum sapphire. The best sapphires are cornflower blue in color with medium saturation. The most expensive and high-quality stones are mined in Kashmir. The largest blue sapphire is the carved Millennium Sapphire, weighing 61 carats. Before cutting, the find weighed 500 carats.

Colored sapphires

Gemologists distinguish colored stones separately from blue precious corundums, and here the palette is quite wide: these include yellow, pink, orange, and green sapphires. Madagascar remains the main supplier of colored sapphires to the world market.


A carat of tanzanite is valued at $300 to $2. Primarily, the price is affected by the color of the stone, which can be blue-violet, violet, blue, olive and sometimes pink. There are also colorless tanzanites. Moreover, the crystals are almost 000% transparent. The hallmark of tanzanite is trichroism, that is, the ability of the mineral to change color three times depending on how you look at it: from olive to blue-violet and then to red-crimson-violet.


Alexandrite, first discovered in Russia, is a variety of chrysoberyl. The mineral was named in honor of Tsarevich Alexander. Later, after becoming emperor, Alexander II wore a ring with alexandrite constantly. The main feature of the stone is its color reverse from greenish-blue in daylight to crimson-red in artificial light (Alexandrite effect).

Noble black opal

Noble opals, including black, are valued primarily for their ability to opalest—to play with all the colors of the rainbow. The mineral acquired this ability due to the large globules in its structure. At the same time, flashes of color come from within, and the play is soft and gentle. Opal is very often counterfeited; in fakes and imitations, reflections come from the very surface. The largest noble black opal ever discovered is the 1-carat “Lady of Glengarry.”


Green garnet, the so-called Ural emerald. A unique feature of this III-order gemstone is its high dispersion, surpassing that of diamond. Demantoid often has fibrous inclusions of golden bisolite, and it looks very beautiful. In addition, it is rare, therefore, in terms of value, demantoid is classified as a precious stone.


Soft pink transparent kunzite was Jacqueline Kennedy’s favorite stone. This jewelry variety of spodumene quickly gained popularity thanks to the support and PR of Tiffany & Co. Some of the most beautiful specimens are mined in Brazil. Kunzite has the property of pleochroism – it is able to change color depending on which side you look at the crystal from. Good hardness (7 points) allows you to safely wear any jewelry with this stone.

By what criteria is a stone classified as precious?

Value is determined by beauty, durability and rarity, with fashion playing an important role. Each criterion includes several characteristics.

Beauty is revealed through the prism of color, shine, play of stone and various optical effects. A mineral is considered rare if the deposits are rare, if the size and/or purity of the stone positively distinguishes it among the representatives of its group. Wear resistance depends on strength, hardness, brittleness, and cleavage.

A rare stone of a beautiful color, which has high transparency and whose beauty is not hindered by inclusions and other defects, can be considered precious. At the same time, it is large enough and has good hardness, which allows it to be used for making jewelry. The presence of optical effects such as asterism, opalescence, and pleochroism also affects the cost of the sample.

How to distinguish real gemstones from laboratory ones

An ordinary person will not be able to determine by eye whether the stone in front of him is a real stone or one grown in a laboratory. Thus, it is not possible to distinguish natural emerald from hydrothermal one without special equipment.

Jewelry tags in jewelry chains always indicate the origin of the inserts. You can find notes that a grown stone is used or synthetic, hydrothermal in the case of emerald.

At the same time, human-made samples often have the same physical and aesthetic properties as the prototype. The only difference is that such stones did not lie in the ground for many years.

It’s another matter when stones are refined in order to pass them off as precious or improve their properties, or when outright fakes and imitations are used. For example, about 95% of mined tanzanites are yellow-brown in color. To obtain the commercial blue-violet color, the crystals are annealed at high temperatures.

An independent gemological examination will make it possible to reliably establish the nature of the mineral and determine the fact of refining.

Interesting facts about gemstones

1. The mining company De Beers contributed to the popularization of diamonds and their becoming a symbol of love.

2. The list of the strangest things made using natural diamonds includes a $2 million Gibson electric guitar made from 18-karat gold and 400-carat diamonds, a fountain pen made from more than 2 small stones, and Damien Hirst’s diamond skull.

3. High hardness stones such as rubies and sapphires can be scratched. How? A harder stone.

4. Galatea pearls are a special technology for growing pearls, when a precious stone is planted in a mollusk shell, which is overgrown with mother-of-pearl. The pearl is then carved to reveal the precious core.

5. The extraction of precious stones can only be carried out by organizations that have a license to do so. Searching for stones on your own is against the law.

Read more about precious stones

What stones are classified as precious Types of precious stones What does the law say: list of precious stones Historical excursion Top 10 precious stones By what criteria is a stone classified as precious How to distinguish real precious stones from labo.

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