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What is stored in the Russian Diamond Fund?

It contains items of jewelry, precious stones, nuggets and coronation regalia, which are of particular value for the history of Russia. Accounting and storage of valuables has been carried out in Russia since the time of Peter I. The special fund of precious metals and stones included coronation regalia, jewelry of royal persons and a variety of jewelry made of rare stones, diamonds, gold and silver, and unique nuggets. In 1920, the Bolsheviks created the State Repository of Valuables (Gokhran of Russia), which, in addition to the royal treasury, also contained nationalized jewelry masterpieces of nobles and landowners. Gokhran still exists and regularly replenishes its collections of jewelry and stone-cutting art with modern works. The main masterpieces of the collection are today exhibited in the Diamond Fund in the Kremlin. Here are the most impressive works.

1. Large Imperial Crown

Court jeweler Georg Friedrich Eckart and diamond craftsman Jeremiah Pozier created this masterpiece in just two months for the coronation of Catherine II in 1762. The main regalia of the Russian Empire is decorated with 75 pearls and 4936 diamonds, and is crowned with a rare red spinel weighing almost 400 carats.

2. Small Imperial Crown

Usually, during the crowning ceremony, the emperor placed this crown on the head of his wife. There were several similar crowns, some of them were sold by the Bolsheviks to the West. This same one, as scientists suggest, was created in 1801 for the wife of Emperor Alexander I, Elizaveta Alekseevna. It includes 48 large and 200 smaller diamonds.

3. Scepter

One of the main symbols of monarchical power – the scepter – is a golden rod almost 60 cm in length. This one was made in 1762 by Leopold Pfisterer, commissioned by Catherine II. Of particular value is the legendary Orlov diamond, weighing 189,6 carats. The stone was bought for the empress in 1774 by her favorite Count Grigory Orlov.

4. Power

Another important regalia is the power, a symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven. Jeweler Eckart made it for the coronation of Catherine II. The power is crowned by a Ceylon sapphire of almost 200 carats.

5. Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called

The highest state award of the Russian Empire before the 1917 revolution was the “Order of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle,” which was established by Peter I. The Order is a blue oblique cross depicting the figure of the crucified St. Andrew. Around the diamond cross is an image of the coat of arms of the Russian state – a double-headed eagle under the imperial crown. For the coronation of Catherine II, a diamond chain, a sign and a star of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called were made, which were subsequently worn by Russian emperors on the day of accession to the throne.

6. Diamond “Big Bouquet”

The 18th century is considered in Russia the century of diamonds. There were several female empresses on the throne, and their jewelry was true masterpieces of jewelry. The “Big Bouquet” was a decoration of the ceremonial dress of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. Flowers of rosehip, iris, narcissus and forget-me-nots make up compositions of colored diamonds. The leaves are made of emeralds.

7. Diamond porta bouquet

The port-bouquet of 1770 is the female equivalent of the boutonniere. This is a small case for flowers, which was attached to the dress with a hairpin. You could even pour water inside this miniature “vase”. The golden stems, covered with green enamel, are wrapped in a diamond ribbon tied in a bow.

8. Brooch with Colombian emerald

A unique stone of historical significance is a deep green Colombian emerald with a slight bluish tint that weighs 136,25 carats. A stone set in a diamond vine leaf setting adorns a brooch from the second quarter of the XNUMXth century. It belonged to Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna, wife of the son of Tsar Nicholas I.

9. Tiara of Maria Feodorovna

“Russian tiara” is what the West called such kokoshnik tiaras, which did not go out of fashion at the Russian court from the beginning of the 13,35th to the beginning of the XNUMXth century. This tiara belonged to Maria Feodorovna, the wife of Emperor Paul I. Its main value is a rare pink diamond weighing XNUMX carats.

10. Bracelet with portrait diamond

This Gothic-style gold bracelet with emeralds and enamel was made in France in 1820 and is considered a true masterpiece of jewelry art. The miniature depicting Emperor Alexander I is made on ivory. It is capped by a 27-carat diamond, which is the world’s largest portrait diamond.

11. Order “Victory”

The highest military order of the USSR was established in 1943, and only 17 people are its holders, including foreign commanders of the allied forces. The order is made of platinum and gold. The ruby ​​star is surrounded by diamonds, and the Kremlin wall with the Lenin Mausoleum and the Spasskaya Tower is depicted on a blue enamel background. “Victory” and “USSR” are written in white enamel.

12. Star of Marshal of the Soviet Union

This honorary badge was awarded to the marshals of the Soviet Union, as well as to the admirals of the fleet. The five-pointed star is made of platinum and gold and encrusted with five round diamonds. In the center there is a composition of diamonds in the shape of a five-pointed Soviet star. The image of the Marshall Star even appeared on a USSR postage stamp.

13. Ural emeralds

A large number of different precious stones and gems are mined in Russia. The Diamond Fund includes spinel crystals, topazes, lapis lazuli, and jasper. The Ural emerald deposits are also especially famous. Two nuggets weighing about a kilogram were found in 1969 and 1978.

14. Diamond “XXVI Congress of the CPSU”

The Diamond Fund has a collection of personalized diamonds. The largest of them (and the largest jewelry diamond in Russia) is this lemon-yellow diamond weighing 342,57 carats. It was found in 1980 in the Mir kimberlite pipe and was named “XXVI Congress of the CPSU” in honor of the memorable event – the party congress, which took place in 1981.

13. Gold nugget “Camel”

In 1745, a very rich gold deposit was discovered in the Urals, and during the subsequent 9th century, Russia became one of the leaders in world gold mining. Most often, valuable finds are melted down, but especially interesting ones are left for study. The Diamond Fund contains more than a hundred nuggets of the most unusual shapes (for example, “Mephistopheles”, “Hare Ears”). This “Camel” nugget weighing 300 kg 1947 g was found at the Kolyma deposit in XNUMX.

16. Platinum nugget “Jaws”

In nature, platinum nuggets are quite rare. The collection of the Diamond Fund contains extremely rare specimens. One of the largest is the “Ural Giant”, weighing 7,8 kg; in appearance it looks more like an ordinary stone. But this nugget of an unusual shape, reminiscent of jaws, weighs 4,7 kg. It was found in the Urals in the first half of the XNUMXth century.

17. Pendant with raspberry pink tourmaline

This tourmaline, shaped like a berry or a bunch of grapes, was given to Catherine II by the Swedish king Gustav III in 1777. The weight of the gem is 260,86 carats, and its size is 4 x 2,7 x 2,3 cm. Green enamel leaves on a gold background highlight its unusual color. The birthplace of the mineral was most likely Burma, and then it made a long journey through the treasuries of European monarchs until it was captured by the Swedes in Prague in 1648.

18. Diamond brooch “Rose”

In 1965, an experimental laboratory of jewelry art was created at Gokhran. A team of five craftsmen worked on the restoration of rare exhibits from the Diamond Fund, from crowns to Soviet award badges. In 1970, jewelers Viktor Nikolaev and Gennady Aleksakhin made the most complex “Rose” brooch from one and a half thousand Yakut diamonds. They were inspired by a photograph of a similar item that belonged to the last Empress Alexandra Feodorovna.

19. Tiara “Russian Beauty”

This tiara made of platinum, gold, diamonds and 25 large pearls also has a historical prototype. Emperor Nicholas I ordered a similar tiara in the shape of a kokoshnik for his wife Alexandra Feodorovna in 1841. After the revolution, the jewelry was sold abroad, and is currently most likely in the Philippines. In 1987, jewelers from the Diamond Fund exactly repeated the lost tiara made by Karl Bolin.

20. Map of Russia made of diamonds

An entire map of Russia was created from a scattering of diamonds. The red corundum ruby ​​marks Moscow, the Ural Mountains are lined with green crystals, and the black diamond marks the city of Mirny, the capital of the Russian diamond mining industry. Also, a separate crystal marks the Arkhangelsk deposit. Dear readers, in order not to miss our latest materials, subscribe to us on social networks: Telegram; VK; Yandex Zen And the diamond fund is a unique collection of historical monuments, works of jewelry, rare samples of precious stones, and nuggets of precious metals. This is one of the few treasuries in the world that store crown treasures. The history of its creation begins with the decree of Peter I (1719), according to which a special room was allocated for the special storage of “things belonging to the state,” which was later called the Diamond Room. State regalia, order insignia, and ceremonial jewelry were concentrated here. Members of the imperial family wore them on special occasions. Throughout the reign of the Romanov dynasty, the treasury was replenished with jewelry. A wide variety of objects and jewelry, richly decorated with precious stones, were made during this period. Splendor and splendor distinguished the Russian court, especially during the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna and Catherine II. He was one of the most brilliant in Europe. The best jewelers worked at the court, such as I. Pozier, father and sons Duval, L. Pfisterer, G. Eckart. They created works of high jewelry, now on display at the exhibition. Breastplate with a portrait of Peter I.

First half of the 18th century

A unique collection of masterpieces of jewelry art of the 18th-20th centuries, precious stones, medal badges, nuggets of gold and platinum are closely related to the history of the Russian state. The official formation of the collection began in the first half of the 1719th century, when Emperor Peter I decided to create the State Repository of Crown Valuables. In XNUMX, a special department, the Chamber Collegium, was organized, which in its Regulations (charter) accurately listed the regalia that existed at that time and established the procedure for their storage. Peter I’s thought about symbols of power that have national significance was later extended to other values. The charter and staff of the chamber department in charge of the crown diamonds changed with each reign. Bow slavage. Master L. Pfisterer. 1764

Second half of the 18th-19th centuries

Crown valuables were kept in a specially guarded room – the Office or Room of His or Her Imperial Majesty, which was also called the Diamond or Diamond Room. During the reign of Catherine II, in 1764, the Empress’s ceremonial bedchamber was converted into the Diamond Room. Contemporaries wrote about it as the richest cabinet of jewelry. The interior was created by the architect Yu.M. Felten. The State Commission under the direction of Academician A.E. Fersman is engaged in the certification of crown values.

First half of the 20th century

At the beginning of the First World War, as the front approached St. Petersburg, the imperial regalia, crown values, the genealogical book of the Russian Imperial House, and the wills of members of the imperial family were evacuated to the Moscow Kremlin and placed in the Crown Hall of the Armory. The evacuation was carried out hastily, but with incredible care for the valuables being transported. The chests contained an Inventory of 1898 with a revaluation of each item. This document served as the basis for subsequent study and publication of the collection. Tiara “Russian Beauty”.

Second half of the 20th century – beginning of the 21st century

The fifties opened a new page in the development of the country’s subsoil. In 1954, geologist from Leningrad L.A. Popugaeva discovered the first diamond kimberlite pipe “Zarnitsa”, in 1955 the “Mir” pipe was discovered – one of the largest deposits in Yakutia. The collection of Gokhran was replenished with a number of large domestic diamonds, then the works of modern jewelers. In addition, the Diamond Fund houses a unique collection of gold and platinum nuggets, including the famous Mineralogical Collection of Catherine II. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Soviet state, on November 2, 1967, a temporary exhibition of the Diamond Fund exhibition was opened in the building of the Armory Chamber. It was decided to show the collection to guests who came to Moscow for festive events. It was assumed that the unique exhibits would be displayed for a year and then returned to Gokhran for storage, but the exhibition became such a major event in the cultural life of the country and the whole world that by a special resolution of the Government it was decided to transform it into a permanent one. Federal government institution “State institution for the formation of the State Fund of Precious Metals and Precious Stones of the Russian Federation, storage, release and use of precious metals and precious stones (Gokhran of Russia) under the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation.” Russia, 121170,
Moscow, 1812 Goda street, 14
Phone number for correspondence inquiries:
+7 499 148–36–96 For questions regarding communication with public organizations and the media, please call:
+7 499 148–47–00
Fax: +7 499 148–73–60
E-mail: gokhran@gokhran.ru For questions regarding the transfer of precious metals and precious stones to the Gokhran of Russia, please contact:
+7 499 249-88-15

About Gokhran of Russia

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Information

  • Regulatory documentation for precious metals and precious stones
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  • Transfer of treasures of precious metals and precious stones to the Gokhran of Russia
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