Stones by zodiac signs

What is the difference between natural emerald and hydrothermal emerald?

This is an analogue of a natural mineral grown in an artificial environment. From time immemorial, emeralds have been the subject of admiration for many. In aristocratic families they were passed down by inheritance, sailors considered this mineral a talisman against misfortunes, esotericists to this day are confident that emerald gives peace of mind, organizes feelings and thoughts. Translated from Greek, emerald means “the greenest stone.”

What is nano emerald and how is it made?

What a nano emerald is becomes clear from the history of its creation. For a long time, numerous studies were carried out, during which variants of beryllium silicates were obtained experimentally. As a result, chemists obtained the smallest crystals of artificial emeralds. The desired results were achieved when silica, beryllium and alumina were placed in a platinum crucible. They put everything together in an autoclave and kept it in this state under pressure and temperature for 24 hours. Depending on changes in temperature, pressure, decrease or increase in the proportions of a particular substance, the necessary changes occurred. Now scientists already knew how to obtain crystals of the desired weight, shape and color. Today, the technology for making hydrothermal emerald remains the same. Changes occurred in the improvement of equipment. The production of nano emeralds has been put into production.

Important properties of nano emeralds:

These stones are extremely resistant to solar radiation
Withstands melting temperatures up to 650 degrees Celsius
Not susceptible to acids and alkalis
Much stronger than natural minerals
Extremely resistant to mechanical damage. Appearance and features of nano emeralds
The composition and physicochemical properties of hydrothermal emeralds correspond to natural stone. Only a professional jeweler can distinguish them. With the advent of artificial stones, the market for precious minerals has changed greatly. Now purchasing an artificial stone that copies the original has become much easier and not expensive.

2 differences that indicate the artificial nature of nano emerald:

  • the presence of microscopic tubular cavities;
  • inclusions in the form of brownish dots – iron oxide residues.

But natural stones also contain defects – cracks, chips, cloudiness. And synthetic products are crystal clear, dark or light green. Products with a bluish tint are often found.

Magic of green color or mineral?

Astrologers are confident that even a stone produced in industrial conditions has a magical effect on a person. A mineral, whether grown by nature or by human hands, is an entity that has gone through stages of development. Witches use hydrothermal emeralds in rituals, believing the power of this stone to be sufficient to purify water. To do this, place it in a glass for a day.

Nano emerald is considered a stone of purity and truth, therefore it does not tolerate deceitful and vile people. As a healing source, this product is recommended to be worn by those who suffer from heart and vascular diseases, mental disorders or nervous system disorders. This is a talisman for the home, even if you just wear this stone as a talisman. It protects against the evil eye, damage, slander and evil people.

Spouses place a product made from these stones in a prominent place in the house to avoid scandals and quarrels. The most energetically powerful of them are dark green or bluish-green synthetic emeralds. Astrologers attribute properties to nano emeralds that can influence every zodiac sign. The charms of the stone balance Aries and Taurus, give Cancers and Pisces peace and harmony with themselves, Libra and Gemini need these products to finally find the middle ground that they so need.

Hydrothermal emerald is a rare case where a person has learned not just to copy what is created by nature, but to surpass it. This synthesis method allows you to obtain stones with a minimum number of inclusions: cavities, bubbles and cracks.

Emerald of decent quality is difficult to find. Nature has learned to create stones of amazingly beautiful and rich colors, but not impeccably clean stones. Most stones used in jewelry contain many inclusions that are visible even to the naked eye. Single pieces of high quality are more expensive than the best rubies and diamonds.

History of creation

The first synthesized emeralds appeared in the 1930s. The German company IG Farben Industry has developed a special salt solution that makes it possible to obtain gem-quality stones. The new product was called “Igmerald”. But further research was suspended: the Second World War began, and German science faced completely different priorities.

Industrial production of hydrothermal emeralds began in the 1940s in the USA. American businessman Carroll Chatham launched the production of synthetic stones, and even came up with a name for them – created gems (“created stones”). The project became a commercial success, although the Chatham emeralds differed significantly from their natural counterparts in density, birefringence and refractive index.

Technologies for the synthesis of hydrothermal emeralds have gradually developed. In the 1960s, American researcher E. Flanigen was able to develop a method for growing crystals from solutions at high temperature and pressure, but with serious drawbacks: the growth process quickly died out, which made large-scale production difficult.

Soviet scientists from Novosibirsk were able to find a solution. In the 1970s, a group of young researchers developed a technology that ensures the stable growth of crystals from a hydrothermal solution – Russian emerald (“Russian emerald”). Later, other varieties of hydrothermally grown emeralds appeared: Biron, Malossi, Chinese. The most popular stones on the world market are those grown using Russian emerald and Colombian color emerald technology.

How are hydrothermal emeralds grown?

Hydrothermal emerald is an emerald grown from an aqueous solution at high temperature and high pressure. This synthesis method is closest to the natural processes of gemstone formation.

In the deep horizons of the earth’s crust there is water rich in mineral salts, in which the components of the future crystal are dissolved. When it moves to shallower layers, it enters an area of ​​​​lower temperature and pressure. This is how an emerald crystal is formed in cavities and cracks in the earth’s crust. The problem is that the process of natural synthesis takes thousands of years. In addition, the treasured stone still needs to be found.

Similar conditions are created in the laboratory. To grow crystals, thick-walled steel beakers are used – autoclaves that can withstand extremely high temperatures and high pressure. The inside is coated with gold or platinum group metals to avoid a chemical reaction with the solution. The mixture with the salt part of the solution is placed in the lower part of such a container and heated, and special plates with a lower temperature are suspended from above. The feedstock is dissolved and carried upward, where it is deposited on the surface of the plates. This cycle is repeated many times.

The hydrothermal method allows you to grow an emerald crystal in 1-3 months. This makes it economically feasible. But the equipment used to synthesize crystals is expensive and requires qualified personnel to service it, which determines the price of hydrothermal emeralds.

Features

Natural stones are evaluated according to 4 standard characteristics – color, clarity, weight and cut quality. Similar characteristics of hydrothermal emeralds are often no worse.

Color

The color of hydrothermal emerald is its main characteristic. It depends on the technology used: for a long time it was possible to obtain only dark green stones, but in the last decade the possibilities of the method have expanded. Color is described using 3 components: hue, saturation and lightness.

Colombian hydrothermal emeralds are green with a bluish tint. They are very similar to the stones mined in Colombia. In jewelry, emeralds of this color are considered standard and are valued above all.

Zambian hydrothermal emeralds are stones of a rich, dense green color. They are less known than the Colombian ones, but are also highly valued. The technologies for synthesizing such stones are simpler, which makes them more accessible.

Cleanliness

The vast majority of natural emeralds have characteristic inclusions. Almost all the stones that can be seen on the display of a jewelry store are refined: they are impregnated with vegetable oils or polymer resins to fill cracks.

Hydrothermal emeralds can also have inclusions, but they are fewer and less noticeable. It is by the number and nature of inclusions that it is usually possible to distinguish a synthesized stone from a natural one.

Weight

The weight of a hydrothermal emerald depends on the time spent growing it. The longer the crystal grows, the larger it will be.

When selling synthesized stones, it is customary to indicate not the mass, but the dimensions. Based on them, it is easy to calculate the carat value of a particular specimen.

Cut shape

During the cutting process of natural emerald, up to 95% of the original weight is lost. To preserve as much of the precious raw material as possible, the cutter has to deviate from the standard. Because of this, the cutting of natural stones is often far from ideal.

This is not the case with hydrothermal emerald: it can be shaped into the desired shape without worrying about leftover material. The most popular cuts are emerald, oval, and pear. They emphasize the beauty of the stone, its shade and color saturation.

How to distinguish hydrothermal emerald from natural one

When buying jewelry in a jewelry store, just look at the tag: if you see a hydrothermal emerald, the letters Gt will be indicated. In addition, you can focus on cost: good quality natural stone will be very expensive.

A more reliable way is to contact a gemological laboratory. Many properties of hydrothermal and natural emeralds are similar: for example, relative density, birefringence, and refractive index differ by hundredths of units of measurement. To determine the origin of a particular stone, it is carefully examined under a microscope, paying great attention to the nature of the inclusions.

Hydrothermal emeralds are characterized by gaseous or liquid inclusions that resemble spikes or nail heads. Without magnification they are invisible.

Hydrothermal or natural emerald: which is better?

Hydrothermal emerald is an opportunity to buy a stone of the standard “Colombian” color at an affordable price. A natural analogue from Colombia will cost 150 thousand rubles per carat of average quality. Synthetic stone will cost tens of times less.

The hydrothermal method allows you to grow a crystal with a minimum number of inclusions. This means that when you look at the stone you will not see obvious defects and cracks. Moreover, even if you buy a natural emerald, it is still highly likely to be refined – that is, it is still not the same as in nature.

A non-specialist cannot distinguish a hydrothermal emerald from a natural one. It has the same magnificent color, captivating with the depth and richness of the shade. It is inferior to natural stone in only one way – it cannot be left as an inheritance.

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