Tips for stone care

What is the hardest mineral in nature?

Other definitions (questions) for the word “diamond” (221)

  1. Collection of the Spanish poet Gabriel Zelaya “Strong as …”
  2. Previously, in the East, many tried to poison their enemies with this crushed jewel.
  3. First class gem
  4. King among gems
  5. King of stones and stone of kings
  6. Jewel in glass cutter
  7. Russian TV brand
  8. Diamond raw
  9. Diamond in pristine condition
  10. A gemstone that is difficult to cut but easy to burn
  11. The hardest stone
  12. Glass cutter stone
  13. Cinema in Moscow, st. Shabolovka
  14. Ashes and . Andrzej Wajda
  15. On the Mohs scale, talc is first, calcite is third, quartz is seventh, and what is tenth on this scale?
  16. “Shah” and “Orlov”
  17. Precision Eye Stone
  18. Once burned, this precious stone will become just soot.
  19. A stone that can be used to cut glass
  20. Glass cutting tool
  21. “Star of Sierra Leone”
  22. Alice Mon’s hit about a precious stone
  23. Diamond
  24. The most expensive mineral
  25. It resists “blows so that the iron on both sides is scattered and the anvil is cracked.” What did Pliny the Elder mean?
  26. Glass cutting mineral
  27. Pure crystalline carbon
  28. The hardest mineral
  29. Future diamond
  30. Precious glass cutter detail
  31. King among the stones
  32. A precious stone that “protects against the spell of witchcraft”
  33. Pure water stone
  34. King of Stones
  35. “Shah”, “Orlov”
  36. Menera
  37. Adamant
  38. hard eye
  39. “Raw” diamond
  40. Carbon as a jewel
  41. Precious mineral
  42. A precious stone, a mineral with a crystalline structure, superior in brilliance and hardness to all other minerals
  43. The hardest jewel
  44. There is nothing harder than him
  45. Orlov’s essence
  46. Mineral – the standard of an accurate eye
  47. Stone cutting glass
  48. A tool for cutting glass in the form of a sharp piece of this stone embedded in a handle
  49. Poem by A. Fet
  50. White unicorn from the last book of Narnia
  51. A stone reputed to be a talisman of motherhood
  52. Mineral, first class gemstone
  53. What does De Beers mine?
  54. What stone helps to maintain excellent memory into old age?
  55. Diamond stone
  56. Stephen King’s story “The Beggar and. “
  57. Which stone is especially sympathetic to the solar signs of the zodiac?
  58. Russian space station
  59. King among gems
  60. If it is perfectly transparent, then the speed of light in it is 124 thousand kilometers per second
  61. The hardest among stones
  62. Very hard stone
  63. Stone “Orlov”
  64. A transparent crystal of such a mineral, cut and polished in a special way
  65. Durable stone
  66. Having a common composition with coal and graphite, but much more expensive
  67. This can be created at home by placing graphite under high pressure and high temperature.
  68. Super strong stone
  69. Raw diamond
  70. Abrasive material
  71. The basis of the magical sword Dragnir in the novel by Nik Perumov
  72. Faithful Eye
  73. Mineral in glass cutter
  74. What stone enters steel like oil if the pressure on it is gradually increased to 60 atmospheres?
  75. The most famous gift from Grigory Orlov to Catherine II
  76. The hardest of stones
  77. Diamond in the Rough
  78. What stone is a sniper’s eye compared to?
  79. The most expensive stone
  80. Mineral that can be set on fire
  81. Diamond at the beginning of his career
  82. King among minerals
  83. Brilliant Carbon
  84. The hardest of minerals
  85. The most durable gem
  86. Precious glass cutter
  87. Film by Andrzej Wajda “Ashes and. ”
  88. Potential Diamond
  89. Graphite condition suitable for glass cutting
  90. A stone like a watchful eye
  91. The clipper on which composer N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov sailed for three years
  92. Ballas
  93. “Orlov” among the stones
  94. Precious stone
  95. Precious talisman of Julius Caesar
  96. Stock mineral of Russia
  97. Synthetic carbon
  98. The hardest substance in nature
  99. Mineral, one of the crystalline polymorphs of carbon
  100. Edward Zwick’s film “Bloody. “
  101. Aries Stone
  102. Rough Diamond
  103. Carbon from a jewelry store
  104. Which stone “protects” from stomach diseases
  105. What kind of stone can be found in a kimberlite pipe?
  106. What stone is hidden behind the diamond?
  107. The hardest mineral in nature
  108. The name of this mineral comes from the Greek word “adamas” – “indestructible”
  109. The diamond before it went to the cutter
  110. Precise eye (colloquial)
  111. Hardfaced mineral
  112. The first to synthesize this mineral was Ovsey Ilyich Leypunsky, a Soviet physicist.
  113. https://sinonim.org/sc
  114. “Star of Africa”
  115. Uncut diamond
  116. Napoleon always carried a large. with him, believing that it would bring him victory
  117. Mineral mined in Yakutia
  118. A stone that helps with difficult childbirth
  119. Stone, symbol of April
  120. The hardest gem
  121. Diamond before cutting
  122. Your eye -.
  123. The hardest stone
  124. A stone that has a chance of becoming a diamond
  125. Chemical substance, natural abrasive material
  126. Something extremely valuable, extraordinary, exceptional (figurative meaning)
  127. Mineral that serves as raw material for diamonds
  128. Perhaps this is the most expensive of the methods used to send people to the next world in the east. For this we used crushed
  129. Diamond in a past life
  130. “Orlov” or “Cullinan”
  131. A mineral that turns into a diamond after cutting.
  132. The most durable mineral
  133. Hard mineral
  134. Source for diamond
  135. It can be colorless, bluish, reddish, yellowish, brown, gray and even black. In 77 BC. e. Pliny gave him the name, from the Greek irresistible. Name it
  136. “Shah” or “Orlov”
  137. Carbon Aristocrat
  138. Very hard mineral
  139. What kind of stone can be found in a kimberlite pipe?
  140. Soviet TV brand
  141. Type of mineral related to native elements
  142. A precious stone respected by glass cutters
  143. Glass cutting jewel
  144. Precise eye
  145. Precious comparison for the precise eye
  146. Noble relative of graphite
  147. Rich relative of graphite
  148. King of Gems
  149. Deadeye Stone
  150. Chemical substance, natural abrasive material
  151. A transparent gemstone with brilliance and hardness superior to all other minerals.
  152. The hardest substance known to man
  153. In ancient Rome, a slave who managed to split this stone was promised freedom.
  154. A transparent precious stone, superior in brilliance and hardness to all other minerals.
  155. Stone “Cullinan”
  156. Stone in glass cutter
  157. Moscow cinema
  158. Pear-shaped mineral in the scepter of the Queen of England
  159. “Shah” of 89 carats in the Kremlin Museum
  160. A hard and fine version of graphite
  161. Precise Eye Standard
  162. What does the hippopotamus hold from the fatal ring from the novel “In One Breath” by Tatyana Ustinova
  163. Stone, symbol of the precise eye
  164. glass cutter stone
  165. . and you see in the mud (proverb)
  166. Diamond blank
  167. Which gemstone can only be destroyed by high temperature?
  168. Graphite after 2000 atmospheres
  169. Gemstone for those born under the sign of Aries
  170. Eye-…
  171. Carbon Jewel
  172. Very strong stone
  173. Which stone helps its owner gain royal favor?
  174. The name of which mineral comes from the Arabic word “unyielding, indestructible”
  175. Precious symbol of vigilance
  176. Transparent gemstone
  177. The most precious stone
  178. Epithet for a very precise eye, good vision
  179. Gemstone that enhances abstract thinking
  180. Which store was robbed by Gorin immediately after his escape from prison in the series “Black Cat”
  181. Russian concern “…-Antey”
  182. Like a lion among beasts, he reigns among stones
  183. Very hard carbon
  184. King of Gems
  185. A gemstone that has become a symbol of a sharp eye
  186. Jeweler’s stone
  187. Which cruiser was the only one that reached Vladivostok in the Battle of Tsushima?
  188. Hard and expensive mineral
  189. Carbonado
  190. “Stock” mineral
  191. A very attentive eye is compared to this stone
  192. Orlov’s gift to Catherine II
  193. pure carbon
  194. Durable glass cutter
  195. Valuable Carbon Option
  196. Wheat variety
  197. Mineral rated 10 on the hardness scale
  198. Translate the word “hardest” into Arabic
  199. Precious carbon
  200. Adventure drama “Bloody. ” starring Leonardo DiCaprio
  201. Diamond in the Rough
  202. They cut glass
  203. Diamond for glass cutter
  204. Musical hit by Alice Mon
  205. “ashes and. ” by Andrzej Wajda
  206. Gemstone, symbol of innocence, strength and courage
  207. Superhard carbon
  208. Mineral whose cutting creates diamonds
  209. Transparent gemstone, mineral (symbol of innocence, hardness and courage)
  210. What 17th century discovery in India was named “Great Mogul”?
  211. The simplest gemstone in chemical composition
  212. The essence of “Orlov”
  213. Form of carbon
  214. Carbon in carats
  215. . pure water
  216. Graphite, who made a brilliant career
  217. Abrasive material, the hardest mineral
  218. They cut glass
  219. “Indestructible” mineral
  220. A jewel that burns
  221. Excellent graphite option
  222. Carbon that “managed” to become a jewel
  1. transparent solid mineral, one of the allotropes of carbon, expensive gemstone
  2. a glass cutting tool in the form of a sharp piece of this mineral embedded in a handle

Meaning of the word

DIAMOND, -A, Muzhkoy road

1. A transparent gemstone, a mineral that is a modification of pure carbon and surpasses all other minerals and precious stones in brilliance and hardness (cut into a certain shape is called a diamond). [Donna Maria:] Diamonds in rings sparkle like stars! Lermontov, Spaniards.

2. A tool for cutting glass in the form of a sharp piece of this stone embedded in a handle.

Diamond (from Proto-Turk almaz, lit. “indestructible”, through Arabic. ألماس ‎ [‘almās] and into Ancient Greek ἀδάμας “indestructible”) – a mineral, a cubic allotropic form of carbon.

Under normal conditions it is metastable, that is, it can exist indefinitely. In a vacuum or in an inert gas at elevated temperatures, it gradually turns into graphite. The hardest on the Mohs scale of reference minerals for hardness.

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The hardness of any mineral is determined by their Mohs scale, the harder the mineral, the higher its Mohs number. The Mohs scale was developed by Friedrich Mohs, a German geologist and mineralogist in 1812. This method is based on the ability of one mineral to visibly scratch others.

Although the Mohs scale is not precise or strictly ordinal, it is used in geology primarily to identify various minerals. To carry out the scratch test, the metallurgist uses a sclerometer or Turner sclerometer. Below is a list of the 12 hardest minerals in the world.

10. Talc

Mohs hardness – 1
Chemical formula – MgSi4O10 (OH) 2
Absolute hardness – 1

Talc is a mineral consisting of hydrated magnesium silicate. On a scale of the 10 hardest minerals, talc is listed as a 1 on the Mohs hardness scale. Only cesium, rubidium with a hardness of 0,2-0,3 and lithium, sodium and potassium with a hardness of 0,5-0,6 are softer than talc. It is a common metamorphic mineral in the metamorphic belts of the western United States, western Alps and the Himalayan region.

9. Gypsum

Mohs hardness – 2
Chemical formula -CaSo4 2H2O
Absolute hardness – 3

Gypsum is a sulfate mineral consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate. It can be used as fertilizer. Various forms of plaster are based on ancient sculptures from Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire. Orbital images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate the existence of gypsum dunes in the northernmost region of Mars. The USA, Brazil, and India are among the three countries with the largest reserves of gypsum in the world. Widely used in soil conditioner and tofu (bean curd).

8. Calcite

Mohs hardness – 3
Chemical formula – CaCO3
Absolute hardness – 9

Calcite belongs to the carbonate group of minerals and is the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. Calcite is a common component of sedimentary rocks, much of which is formed from dead marine organisms. It has a Mohs hardness scale of 3 and a specific gravity of 2,71. One remarkable natural calcite structure is Snowy River Cave in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

7. Fluorite

Mohs hardness – 4
Chemical formula – CaF2
Absolute hardness – 21

Fluorite or fluorspar is a colored mineral, and because of its moderate hardness, it is used to make jewelry and other artistic works. Fluorite is also a commonly found mineral – China, Mexico, and South Africa are some of the largest fluorite producing countries in the world. Its main use is in optics, where it is used as a window material. Optical lenses are also composed of fluorite due to its low dispersion causing no or less chromatic aberration.

6. Apatite

Mohs hardness – 5
Chemical formula – Ca5 (PO4) 3 (OH-, CI-, F-)
Absolute hardness – 48

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals that are commonly known as hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite. It is also one of the few minerals that is produced and used by biological microecological systems. The main use of apatite is in fertilizer production as it is a good source of phosphorus. Rock samples collected by astronauts during the Apollo program show traces of apatite.

5. Feldspar orthoclase

Mohs hardness – 6
Chemical formula – KAISi3O8
Absolute hardness – 72

Feldspar orthoclase is an important mineral that forms igneous rocks. Orthoclase is a common component of most granites and other volcanic rocks. It is a common raw material for making glass and some ceramics such as porcelain, and also as a component of cleaning powder.

4. Quartz

Mohs hardness – 7
Chemical formula – SiO2
Absolute hardness – 100

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust, only after feldspar. There are many different varieties of quartz found in Europe. It is an important component of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Quartz crystal has piezoelectric properties and is widely used as a crystal oscillator. Quartz watches are a familiar device using this mineral.

3. Topaz

Mohs hardness -8
Chemical formula – AI2SiO4 (OH-, F-) 2
Absolute hardness – 200

Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine, and its crystals are generally pyramid shaped. Pure topaz is colorless and transparent, but it is usually colored by impurities. A typical topaz is yellow, pale gray, reddish gray or blue-brown in color. Large quantities of topaz are found in Sri Lanka, Germany, Norway, Nigeria, Australia, Japan, Brazil, Mexico and the United States.

2. Corundum

Mohs hardness – 9
Chemical formula – AI2O3
Absolute hardness – 400

Corundum is the second hardest mineral on the Mohs scale. It is a crystalline form of aluminum oxide with traces of iron, chromium, vanadium and titanium. Pure corundum is transparent, but, on the other hand, in the presence of impurities it can have different colors. Different colored corundum has different names, red colored corundum is known as ruby ​​and orange pink is known as padparadsha and all the rest are known as sapphire.

1. Diamond

Mohs hardness – 10
Chemical Formula – C
Absolute hardness – 1600

Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral on the Mohs scale. The hardness of a diamond depends on its purity, and the hardest diamond can only be scratched by other diamonds. Some blue diamonds are natural semiconductors, some are electrical insulators, and the rest are electrical conductors.

About 26000 kg of diamonds are mined annually, of which 50% of diamonds come from Central and Southern Africa. Many recent studies show that Diamond is no longer the hardest mineral on Earth and has been replaced by the next one.

Wurtzite boron nitride

Very small amounts of wurtzite boron nitride exist on Earth. They are either found naturally or synthesized by hand. Various simulations have shown that wurtzite boron nitride can withstand 18 percent more stress than diamond. Naturally, they are produced during volcanic eruptions due to very high temperatures and pressure.

Lonsdaleite

Lonsdaleite, also known as hexagonal diamond, was named after Kathleen Lonsdale, a famous Irish crystallographer. Lonsdaleite is said to be 58 percent harder than diamond. Lonsdaleite is a naturally occurring mineral formed when meteorites containing graphite strike the earth. The heat and stress from the impact transforms the graphite into diamond while maintaining the graphite’s hexagonal crystal lattice.

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