Geological classification

What is the name of the largest diamond?

In the beginning, diamonds were worn by military leaders, kings and emperors. They began to be used as women’s jewelry only from the middle of the 15th century. The fashion for wearing diamonds – cut jewelry diamonds – was introduced by the favorite of the King of France, Charles VII, Agnes Sorel. From this time on, diamonds began to receive names. The largest diamond found was named “Cullinan”. It was discovered in 1905 near Pretoria in South Africa. The Cullinan weighed 3106 carats (or 621 g) and cost £9 million. The diamond was presented to the English king Edward VI. During processing, “Cullinan” was split into 105 pieces; the largest of them weighing 516,5 carats (or 103,3 g) was called “Star of Africa”. The Queenur diamond has never been sold for money. It was found in India as early as 56 BC. e. In 1304, Sultan Aladdin Khili deceived the king of Malwa and took it to Delhi. In 1526, the Kabul king Babur invaded India. His son Humayun took the diamond to Persia and presented it to the Shah of Persia. Then the diamond again came to India as a gift, where another Persian Shah, Nadir, took possession of it. Seeing the diamond, he exclaimed in admiration: “This is a real mountain of light!” This is how the diamond got its name: translated from Farsi, “quinur” means “mountain of light.” In 1747, Shah Nadir was killed by his own guards. General Abdali, having captured the stone, fled to Afghanistan. In 1813, the Lahore king Ranjit Singh returned the diamond back to India by force of arms and ordered it to be inserted into a bracelet, which he wore at all receptions. When the mutiny of two Sikh regiments broke out in 1848, all the jewels were declared spoils of war by the British and transported to England. The diamond was recut, and its weight was reduced to 21,2 g. In 1911, “Quinur” was set into the small Royal State Crown of Great Britain, made for Queen Mary. Because of its dramatic history, the Queenure Diamond has become England’s most famous jewel. The Regent diamond weighing 400 carats (80 g) was found in 1701 in Golconda (India). The English governor of the city of Madras, the former pirate Thomas Pitt, bought this diamond for 20 pounds sterling from a local jeweler and took it to London, where he sold it in 000 for 1717 pounds sterling to the regent of France, the Duke of Orleans. From that moment on, the diamond received the name “Regent”. At one time this diamond adorned the hilt of Napoleon’s sword. Now the Regent diamond is in the Louvre Museum in France; after cutting, it weighs 125000 g and is valued at $27,35 million. Diamond “Raja Maltansky”, found in 1787 on the island. Borneo, uncut, has a smooth pear-shaped shape and weighs 73,4 g. The brilliance of this diamond is unique. It was believed that the fertility of the land and the wealth of the country depended on this diamond. Many believed that this diamond healed all ailments – you just had to drink the water in which it was kept for some time. The first large Brazilian diamond weighing 261,9 carats (or 52,4 g) was called “Star of the South”. This diamond has a bluish tint and is completely transparent. A diamond that has been subjected to jewelry processing – cutting, polishing – is called a diamond. The Orlov diamond, with a greenish-blue tint, weighing 200 carats (or 40 g) crowns the royal scepter of Russia. The diamond that became the basis of this diamond. was found at the beginning of the 300th century. in Golconda in India. Initially, it was cut in the form of a “tall rose” weighing 200 carats. Shah Jehan was dissatisfied with the cut and ordered the stone to be recut. After this, the diamond acquired its modern shape, but its weight dropped to 1737 carats. It was inserted into the throne of Shah Nadir, who took possession of the city of Delhi in 1773, and was called “Derianur” (“sea of ​​light”). The diamond was stolen, ended up on the market in Amsterdam, where Count Orlov bought it in 400 for XNUMX thousand rubles for Catherine II. The queen ordered the stone to be set into her golden scepter. The “Big Rose” diamond illuminated the brow of the main god Shiva in one of the temples in India. It was stolen and sent to Europe. The priests of the temple followed in his footsteps, killing all the buyers of this stone. This is how the first owner of the “Big Rose”, the French Count de Raisilin, was killed, then Princess Margarita and others. Finally, the priests of the Indian temple managed to seize the diamond from another buyer and returned it to their homeland. The famous Koh-i-Noor diamond (Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor) has belonged to the British crown for more than 170 years and, along with the rest of the royal jewels, rests peacefully in the Tower of London. The current queen walks him from time to time. The Koh-i-Noor is believed to bring bad luck to any man who owns it, which is why it is worn only by women of the royal family. The myth was born out of the rich history of the diamond, filled with brutal struggles for power and possession of the stone, accompanied by wars, blood, torture, treachery and betrayal. The history of Kohinoor goes back centuries, but can be traced relatively reliably only from the beginning of the 5000th century. According to ancient Indian legend, Kohinoor appeared XNUMX years ago. They say that Kohinoor was the eye of one of the Hindu gods, and also that it was worn by the hero of the ancient Indian epic “Mahabharata”, Prince Karna. In legends, it is identified with the magic stone Chintamani, which grants the fulfillment of desires. But this is unlikely, since Kohinoor influenced each of its owners exactly the opposite. However, all this is from the realm of legend. Most scientists believe that the Kohi-i-Noor was actually discovered during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty on the Deccan plateau in the Kollur mine in southern India. In 1310, the Khilji dynasty from the Delhi Sultanate invaded the Kakatiya kingdom, ravaged it and took the Koh-i-Noor diamond as tribute along with 100 elephants and 20 horses. The Khiljis did not rejoice at the victory for long. In 000, the Khilji family was overthrown by the Tughluq clan, one of the five families that ruled the Delhi Sultanate. But they were soon overthrown. The inter-clan war continued for quite a long time and each of the subsequent victorious clans of the Delhi Sultanate became the owner of the Koh-i-Noor, but none of them retained power for long. In 1526, the Delhi Sultanate and the whole of northern India were conquered by Prince Babur from a Turkic-Mongol family living in the territory of modern Uzbekistan. He founded a new dynasty, the Mughals, which ruled northern India until 1857. And along with all the goods, the famous stone also passed to him. Babur modestly called it “Babur’s Stone.” The fifth Mughal Emperor was Shah Jahan (the one who built the Taj Mahal). Another of Jahan’s wonders was an elaborately decorated golden throne called the Peacock Throne. The throne was covered with gold plates, decorated with countless diamonds, rubies, emeralds and pearls. Two golden peacocks decorated the canopy of the throne; the eye of one peacock was Koh-i-Noor or Babur’s Diamond; the other eye is the Shah Akbar diamond. During the reign of his son, Aurangzeb (1661–1707), they decided to cut the diamond. This was already some kind of new fashion trend – before this, the Mongols preferred diamonds in their natural, uncut form. The work was entrusted to the Venetian carver Hortenso Borgia, after which the size of the largest diamond in the world at that time was reduced from 793 to 186 carats. The cutting was extremely unsuccessful and only spoiled the stone. An enraged Aurangzeb fined the Venetian 10 rupees for damaging the stone. The French traveler Tavernier, who was himself a jeweler, and saw the Kohinoor adorning the Peacock Throne during the reign of Aurangzeb, claimed that this stone weighed 420 carats. It is surprising that in the struggle for the throne between the four sons of Shah Jahan, which Tavernier witnessed, the stone was not damaged. The Frenchman also claimed that the diamond was cut in the shape of a rose and weighed 900 carats before treatment. In 1739, Shah Nadir of Persia invaded India, defeated the Mughal forces under the weak and incompetent Mohamed Shah Rangila, and seized all their fabulous wealth. Among other things, he received both the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-Noor. They say that when the Shah saw Almaz Babur, he exclaimed: “Koh-i-Noor!” or “Mountain of Light!”, giving the stone its current name. Overall, the Persians captured booty from India that is valued today at $18,4 billion. After the capture of India, Nadir Shah most wanted to take possession of such a rare diamond as the Kohinoor, but did not know where it was. He was definitely no longer in the Peacock Throne, because he had already captured the throne. His spies told him that Rangila kept the diamond in his turban. Nadir Shah forced Rangila to marry his daughter to his son. After the wedding, Nadir Shah said: “Now we are brothers. And according to Iranian tradition, brothers must exchange turbans.” And without waiting for an answer, he took off Rangila’s turban and placed his own turban on his head. However, like others before him, Nadir Shah did not enjoy his diamond for long. He was killed in 1747 and the Koh-i-Noor passed to one of his generals, Shah Ahmad Durrani. Later that year, the general conquered Afghanistan and became its first emir, founding the Durrani dynasty. In turn, Zaman Shah Durrani, the third Shah of Durrani, was overthrown and imprisoned in 1801 by his younger brother Shah Shuja. Shah Shuja was furious when he inspected his brother’s treasury and realized that the dynasty’s most valuable possession, the Koh-i-Noor Diamond, was missing. Zaman took the stone with him to prison and dug a hiding place for it in the wall of his cell. Shah Shuja offered him freedom in exchange for a stone. After thinking, Zaman Shah agreed to this deal. In 1809, Shah Shuja Durrani was overthrown by another brother, Shah Mahmud Durrani. Shah Shuja had to flee into exile in India. At that time, India was ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, known as the Lion of Punjab. He ruled in the city of Lahore in what is now Pakistan. Since childhood, Ranjit Singh had two dreams: to take possession of Koh-i-noor and return back the gates of the blank’ href=’’>Somnath Temple, taken by Mahmud Ghazni. When the rebellion broke out against Shah Shuja, his wife Wafa Begum approached Ranjit Singh to save her husband and promised the Maharaja Koh-i-noor in exchange for her husband’s safety. The Maharaja agreed and dispatched his most talented general, Dewan Mokham Chand, to rescue the Shah from the Shargarh fort. The Shah was rescued and taken to Lahore to his wife. But when it came to payback, the Shah became stubborn and in every possible way delayed the transfer of the diamond. However, in 1813 he decided to raise a new army and try to regain the Afghan throne. On June 1, 1813, a document was signed and the diamond was presented by the Afghan ruler in exile to the Maharaja of Punjab. According to some historians, the Maharaja paid Shah Shuja a lot of money as a gesture of goodwill. Koh-i-noor is the Persian name for diamond. The Afghans called him “Shah Hira”. The court historian Ranjita Singha also called him that. The stone remained in the hands of Ranjit Singh from 1 June 1813 to 27 June 1839, when he died. His last wish was to donate “Shah Heera” to the Jagganath Temple in Orissa. However, this was not destined to come true. Soon after this, Ranjit Singh fell into a coma and never regained consciousness. After the death of Ranjit Singh, a bitter struggle for the throne broke out between his heirs, during which the Kohinoor was passed from one relative to another for about ten years. As a result, after mutual extermination, the kingdom fell on the head of Ranjit’s only living descendant, the young Maharaja Dulip Singh, and Kohinoor became his property. Duleep Singh was the seventh son of the Maharaja and the last surviving member of his family. He was proclaimed Maharaja of Punjab in February 1844, when he was not yet 6 years old. The Sikh state at that time, after many years of internecine war, was in a state of deep crisis and increasingly fell under the influence of the British East India Company. In 1849, the British East India Company won the Second Angola-Sikh War and seized Punjab from the young king, transferring all political power to the British Resident. The Treaty of Lahore (1849) specified that the Koh-i-Noor diamond should be presented to Queen Victoria not as a gift to the East India Company, but as a trophy of war. The British also took 13-year-old Duleep Singh to Britain, where he was raised under the tutelage of Queen Victoria. Duleep Singh was given an allowance of Rs 15 per annum. He also received the status of a European prince and the title of “His Serene Highness”. Some historians believe that the queen always felt guilty when she wore the Koh-i-noor. And so she convinced the Maharaja to formally present her with the diamond. When the 15-year-old Maharaja was presented to Queen Victoria, she wrote in her diary: “After dinner we received the young Maharaja Duleep Singh, son of Ranjit Singh, who had been deposed after the annexation of the Punjab. He was well brought up and lived mainly in the mountains. He was baptized last year, so he is a Christian. He is very handsome and speaks English fluently. His manners are graceful, pleasant and noble. He was luxuriously dressed and hung with diamonds. I always have great sympathy for these poor powerless princes.” The Kohinoor was the main attraction of the Great London Exhibition of 1851. Even though the display case was not properly lit and the diamond looked like a piece of dull glass, thousands of people lined up every day to look at the famous stone. Since the previous cut of the stone left much to be desired, Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband, decided to recut it in 1852. Dutch diamond cutter Levi Benjamin Voorsanger was brought in to recut the Kohinoor. Once again, the cutter dramatically reduced the size of the stone, this time from 186 carats to 105,6 carats. Voorsanger didn’t plan to cut off that much, but found imperfections that needed to be removed to achieve maximum shine. Queen Victoria wore it as a brooch. Other queens wore it as the front of their crowns. It was installed in Queen Alexandra’s coronation crown in 1902, then moved to Queen Mary’s crown in 1911. In 1937, the Kohinoor was inserted into the coronation crown of Queen Consort Elizabeth, mother of the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. In this form, the diamond remains in the royal treasury in the Tower to this day. The crown was displayed for the last time during the funeral of the Queen Mother in 2002. As soon as India gained independence in 1947, the new government asked Britain to return the Kohinoor. After the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953, India again asked for the return of the diamond. Both requests remained unanswered. The Indian Parliament again asked for the gem in 2000. Britain refused to consider India’s claims. In 1976, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto asked Britain to return the diamond to Pakistan because it had been seized from the Maharaja of Lahore. This prompted Iran to make its claims. In 2000, the Taliban regime in Afghanistan asked for the Kohinoor to be returned to them and not to Iran, India or Pakistan. Britain replied that since so many countries had laid claim to the Koh-i-Noor, none of them had more rights to it than Britain. In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed in the Supreme Court of India by an Indian non-governmental organization for human rights and social justice, demanding the return of Kohinoor to India. The court did not support the claim.

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