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What is the name of the most expensive gem in the world?

Have you ever wondered what types of gemstones are considered the most expensive in the world? In this article, we will look at the top 10 most valuable types of stones in order of increasing value. We would like to note that in this list we deliberately included only those varieties of expensive minerals that have found practical application in jewelry and have true beauty and rarity. Often in such articles with ratings of stones, some rare collectible minerals are mentioned, which are only occasionally cut. We did not include them in this review, because. only a small part of them actually have a beautiful appearance, demand from market participants and a price that was not taken “out of the blue” by the authors of those articles. The price guidelines for stones given below are based on data taken from The Gem Guide magazine, offers from online stores and open auction sales data. Stones from the above list are of interest for purchase not only from jewelry lovers, collectors, jewelers, but also from investors.

10. Tsavorite garnet

Tsavorite – a jewelry variety of grossular garnet. The typical color is green with a slightly yellowish tint. This is a relatively new stone on the international scene. It was discovered about 50 years ago in Tsavo National Park in Kenya. Nowadays it is also mined in Tanzania, less often in Madagascar. Since 1974, the jewelry company Tiffany&Co has been promoting the new gem to the market. Today it can be seen in products of major jewelry brands. The weight of tsavorites rarely exceeds 3 carats. Larger specimens are typically deep green in color, caused by the presence of chromium and vanadium impurities. It is worth noting that tsavorite is one of the few precious stones that are not subject to any types of refining. The best 5-carat specimens can cost $5000-$6 per carat.

9. Red spinel

Spinels are beautiful gemstones of various colors. The most valuable of them are red. Previously, they were not even distinguished from rubies due to their similar appearance and similar physical properties. Red spinels used to be associated with wealth and power. They adorned the imperial crowns of Russia, Great Britain, France, Germany and the thrones of eastern rulers. This stone is used to decorate the “Monomakh’s Cap”, which was used to crown the Russian princes. The Diamond Fund houses Russia’s first imperial crown, made in 1762 for Catherine II. It is decorated with a unique spinel sample of 398,72 carats. Red spinels have been rapidly gaining popularity in recent years. This is the fastest growing semi-precious stone in price. The most highly valued stones are bright red in color from Burma and Tanzania. Large gem-quality crystals are rare and therefore especially valuable. It is also worth noting that, unlike most precious stones, spinels are practically not subjected to refining (improving the appearance of the stone using various methods). The high hardness of the stone allows it to be used in any type of jewelry and worn every day. The price of high quality red spinel weighing about 5 carats usually lies in the range of 6000-8000 dollars per carat.

8. Garnet demantoid

Demantoids They are a rather rare and most expensive variety of andradite garnet. Its color is green. The most expensive color is rich green, without a yellowish tint. The name of the stone can be translated as “diamond-like.” This is due to the fact that demantoids have very strong dispersion (the play of color flashes) in the stone, just like diamonds. Dispersion is best seen in non-dark, round-cut demantoid stones. Demantoids were first discovered in the Urals in the mid-19th century in Russia. Today, mining also takes place in Namibia and Madagascar. But Ural specimens are the most valued in the world; they are already a kind of well-known brand. Stones from the Urals are characterized by the presence of beautiful inclusions in the form of a “horse tail”. Collectors are very fond of such stones. On video: a pair of Ural demantoids Demantoids over 3 carats are quite rare. The price of top unheated demantoid from the Urals weighing about 5 carats on the world market can exceed $10 per 000 carat.

7. Paraiba Tourmaline

Paraiba tourmalines – the most valuable variety of the mineral tourmaline. They were discovered in 1988 in the state of Paraiba in Brazil, after which they were named. They are valued for their unique neon blue color. This rare color is caused by copper impurities. The bulk of Paraiba tourmalines today come from Mozambique. Typically, specimens from there have light to medium color in a greenish-blue palette. Prices for good purity, saturated heated Mozambican stones weighing 5 carats are in the range of $8000-12000/carat. But Brazilian samples can sometimes cost 5 times more. They are usually very brightly colored, but are rarely larger than 2 carats. The cost of unheated top stones from Brazil with a unique mass of more than 5 carats sometimes reaches $40000-50000/carat. High-quality Brazilian specimens are considered one of the best investments in colored stones, because their deposits are almost exhausted, and demand for them significantly exceeds supply.

6. Padparadscha Sapphire

A stone with a beautiful and unusual name “Pardparadscha sapphire” – What is it? In general, jewelry sapphires are varieties of the mineral corundum. Their composition is aluminum oxide, Al2O3. In addition to the main blue color, sapphires have a very wide range of colors. Among them, the rarest Padparadscha sapphires stand out. Their color lies in delicate pinkish-orange tones. It is often compared to the color of the Sun at sunset or the color of lotus petals. The main color can be either orange or pink. Padparadscha sapphires have a Mohs hardness of 9. There are three main known sources of these sapphires: Sri Lanka, Madagascar and Tanzania. Untreated specimens are most highly valued – without color enhancement by heat treatment. These are stones for true connoisseurs and collectors. The cost of an unheated 5-carat Padparadscha sapphire of good quality reaches $10000-15000/car., a heated stone is about 1,5 times cheaper. The record price per carat belongs to the Padparadscha sapphire weighing 14,65 carats, sold at Christie’s auction in Hong Kong in 2011 for $775000 ($53000/carat).

5. Emerald

Emerald – the most popular colored stone in the world. In composition, it belongs to the mineral beryl. Its chemical formula: Be3Al2Si6O18. The hardness is high – 7,5-8. But at the same time, the stone has some fragility. It should be handled carefully. The most valuable color of the stones is deep green. Almost all emeralds are refined by impregnating the cracks with oils, then the cracks become less noticeable. Visually pure and, at the same time, bright stones without refining are very rare and are highly valued. The highest price will be for emeralds mined in Colombia. From there, excellent quality emeralds have been supplied to the world market since ancient times. This is an already established brand. The cost of a 5-carat oiled emerald of excellent quality from Zambia can reach $7000-9000/carat; an unoiled emerald averages $10000-13000/carat. And if it is an emerald from Colombia, then the price will be even more expensive (up to 100% premium). The record price belongs to the 18,04-carat untreated Colombian Rockefeller Emerald, which sold at Christie’s in New York for US$5,5 million ($305 per carat). The stone was previously owned by the Rockefeller dynasty.

4. Blue sapphire

Classic blue color sapphire dearest. The most valuable colors of blue sapphires have the trade names “royal blue” and “cornflower blue.” The color is determined by the presence of titanium and iron in the composition. Unheated sapphires (without enhancement of color and clarity) are valued significantly higher than heated ones and are more rare. High-quality unheated sapphires from Kashmir and Burma (Myanmar) command the highest price per carat. Blue sapphires of excellent quality most often come to the market from Sri Lanka, and their cost is lower. Blue sapphires have a hardness level of 9 on the Mohs scale. An unheated stone from Sri Lanka of good quality weighing 5 carats can cost around $4500/carat, a heated one is about 1,5 times cheaper. And unheated from Kashmir – from $30000/carat. The highest price paid for 1 carat of Kashmir sapphire is $243000. This happened when the 27,68-carat stone was sold at Sotheby’s in 2015 for $6,7 million. The record “total” price for a blue sapphire sold at auction belongs to the 392,52-carat Blue Belle of Asia sapphire, mined in Sri Lanka. It was sold in November 2014 at Christie’s in Geneva for US$17,3 million ($44000 per carat).

3. Rubin

Rubies also belong to the jewelry variety of the red corundum mineral. The red color is caused by chromium impurities. The richer the color of rubies, the more expensive they are. The most valuable color of ruby ​​is bright red, referred to in the trade as “pigeon’s blood.” Shades of purple or orange reduce the value of the stone. The most highly prized are untreated rubies of the “pigeon’s blood” color, especially those mined in Burma (Myanmar). Since ancient times, specimens of the highest quality have been supplied to the world market from there. Rubies are refined mainly by heating. At the same time, the color of the stone becomes brighter, unwanted shades can be eliminated, and also visually improve purity. Unheated rubies are several times more expensive than heated ones, because. they are more rare. Rubies have a high Mohs hardness scale of 9. The price of a good 5-carat stone from Mozambique without refining can reach up to $25000/carat. A similar stone from Burma will cost 3-5 times more. The most expensive ruby ​​sold at the auction was the Sunrise ruby, weighing 25,59 carats. It was sold in May 2015 at Sotheby’s in Geneva for $30,3 million ($1,18 million per carat). It has the top color “pigeon blood”, the stone has excellent clarity, and it was mined in Burma. The stone is in a ring from the jewelry brand Cartier.

2. Blue Diamond

Blue and blue diamonds – these are one of the most expensive substances on our planet. Diamonds of this color are very, very rare. Their unusual color is caused by the presence of boron atoms in the crystal lattice of the mineral. Diamond without impurities is absolutely colorless crystalline carbon. Diamonds have a maximum hardness of 10 on the Mohs scale. Most blue diamonds have weak color saturation and often have additional grayish or greenish tints that reduce their value. Fancy Vivid Blue diamonds are the most valuable. Typically, specimens weighing up to 1 carat are presented on the world market. A stone measuring 3-4 mm and weighing about a quarter of a carat can cost 300000-500000 US dollars per carat. The most expensive blue diamond sold at auction is the 14,62-carat Oppenheimer Blue, sold at Christie’s in Geneva in May 2016 for $57,5 million ($3,93 million/carat). The record price per carat (more than $4 million) belongs to the diamond “The Blue Moon of Josephine” weighing 12,03 carats, which went under the hammer in November 2015 at Sotheby’s auction in Geneva for $48,4 million. And the most famous blue diamond is the Hope Diamond, weighing 45,52 carats, kept in the Smithsonian Museum in the USA. It is a stone with a rich history and is valued at approximately $350 million. Most of the best blue diamonds were mined in South Africa and Australia.

1. Red Diamond

Red diamonds extremely rare. In terms of their concentration of value, they leave behind all other precious stones. There are less than a hundred diamonds of pure red color (Fancy Red) without additional shades in the form of pink, brown or purple. But even with shades there are very few of them on the world market. The nature of the red color is associated with the presence of plastic deformations in the diamond crystal. On average, the price per carat of a pure red diamond weighing up to 1 carat ranges from 500 thousand to 1 million dollars. Stones larger than 1 carat are rarely found on sale. They often contain obvious inclusions and cracks. The largest red diamond weighs 5,11 carats and is called “Moussaieff Red”. It is shaped like a trillion. The original crystal weighed 13,90 carats and was found in the 90s of the 20th century in Brazil. In 2002, the diamond was purchased by the Moussaieff jewelry house for $8 million, which amounted to more than $1,56 million per carat. If this diamond were offered for sale today, its price would be much higher. The main source of red diamonds in the world is the Australian Argyle mine, which by the end of 2020 will be completely depleted and closed. In this regard, an increase in prices for red diamonds is expected. We recommend reading on the website Jewelry as a gift for Valentine’s Day They say that the most valuable thing in this world is the mind, but the most expensive thing is cut diamonds. However, they are not the only ones. We present to you the most expensive precious stones in the world – TOP 10 kings of jewelry Olympus.

10th place – tsavorite

Fig 1. Tsavorite – price up to $10 per carat

Many people associate pomegranate with the dark wine-colored mineral pyrope. However, there are many varieties of garnet that come in a wide range of shades. Spessartine is also a garnet, but has a cheerful orange color. The spectrum of grossulars (another type of garnet) ranges from white (leucite) to green. The latter, one of the most expensive stones in the world, is called tsavorite. This mineral of bright grassy color with a hypnotic shine was discovered relatively recently – in 1967 of the last century. The first specimens are said to have been found in Tsavo National Park in Kenya. And then Tiffany&Co jewelers made a real brand out of green garnet, which, coupled with its rarity (tsavorite is 300 times rarer than emerald), turned it into almost the most expensive stone in the world. Depending on the weight and characteristics of the stone, the price per carat can be up to $10 thousand.

9th place – red spinel

Fig 2. Red spinel – price from $8 per carat

Another representative of the jewelry Olympus is noble red spinel. Once upon a time, these stones could not even be distinguished from rubies – they were so similar. Red spinel, which was associated with power and wealth, adorns the crowns of the world’s greatest rulers. The first imperial crown (the most expensive in the world), made for the coronation of Catherine II by the jeweler Eckart, is crowned with a huge scarlet gem – a noble spinel weighing 398,72 carats. Today, sellers ask for high-quality ruby ​​spinel from $8 per carat.

8th place – green garnet (demantoid)

Fig 3. Green garnet (demantoid) – price up to $10 per carat

Another variety of garnet – demantoid – is also in our TOP of the most expensive stones in the world. The favorite stone of the great Carl Faberge and Nicholas II is andradite. It has a deep green color and light dispersion that is even higher than that of a diamond. To fully reveal the delightful play of light, jewelers prefer to give the demantoid a diamond cut. Perhaps that is why its name can be translated as “diamond-like.” Demantoid is an extremely rare mineral that is mined mainly in Russia (sometimes called the “Ural emerald”) and African countries. A high-quality stone that has not been subjected to heat treatment (sometimes demantoid stones are heated to improve color) and weighs from 5 carats will cost the connoisseur a tidy sum – up to $10 thousand per carat.

7th place – emerald

Fig 4. Emerald – price up to $20 per carat

One of the oldest gemstones, the emerald, continues to win hearts. and wallets. They say that the first mines appeared in Egypt 330 years BC, and the famous Cleopatra adored emeralds. Today, these noble green minerals are mined in Zambia, Colombia, Brazil and just a little in Russia. The best high-quality emeralds with rich color and no impurities can cost up to $20 thousand per carat. The most expensive stone in the world sold at auction is the 18-carat Rockefeller Emerald. The price per carat was $305. But this is not a record. Experts valued the Colombian “Fura” weighing 000 kilograms (2 thousand carats) at $11,35 million, and the “Bahia” nugget weighing 150 million carats was valued at $1,9 million.

6th place – Paraiba tourmaline

Fig 5. Paraiba tourmaline – price from $20 to $000 per carat

Another most expensive jewelry stone in the world can easily compete with colorless diamonds in price. The best examples of Paraiba tourmaline cost from $20 to 30 thousand per carat. And the price of outstanding gems of Brazilian origin can reach up to $60 thousand per carat. The largest Paraiba (Ethereal Carolina Divine Paraiba) weighs 191,87 carats. This sparkling, stunning diamond-cut oval stone is priced at approximately $125 million. That’s $651,482 per carat. Paraiba (the stone is named after the Brazilian province where it was found for the first time at the end of the last century) is perhaps the rarest variety of tourmaline. Its bright turquoise color with a neon glow effect is reminiscent of the color of the purest sea water in paradise tropical lagoons. It’s also very similar to Tiffany’s signature shade. Like diamonds and other precious minerals, Paraiba tourmaline is considered an investment stone.

5th place – Padparadscha sapphire

Figure 6. Padparadscha sapphire – price up to $50 per carat

Let’s move on to the next best thing. Like garnet, sapphire can have many shades, so the epithet “sapphire” (as they say about a deep blue tone) is not entirely correct. Pink, green, yellow, purple, white, and orange sapphires are found in nature. And then there is Padparadscha – a “sunny” stone, which surprisingly harmoniously combines pink, scarlet and fiery shades. Padparadscha sapphire is mined in Sri Lanka (the name means “lotus color” in Sinhala), Thailand, Madagascar and Vietnam. “Solar” minerals from Sri Lanka are considered the reference – their cost reaches $50 thousand per carat.

4th place – blue sapphire

Fig 7. Blue sapphire – price $30 per carat

Classic sapphire in shades of royal blue and cornflower blue is the most expensive variety of sapphire. A flawless stone weighing 5 carats or more (remember: the larger and better the crystal, the higher the price per carat) can be valued at $30 thousand per carat. However, provided that the stone has ideal characteristics, is mined in Kashmir and has not been subjected to heat treatment to improve color. The most expensive sapphire in the world weighs 27,68 carats. It sold for $243000 per carat at Sotheby’s in 2015.

3rd place – ruby

Fig 8. Burmese ruby ​​– price $70 per carat

A large (from 5 carats) Burmese ruby ​​with a rich, deep “pigeon’s blood” shade will cost $70 thousand or more per carat. However, this is if we are talking about an unrefined (unheated) ruby. Minerals from Burma are considered standard, but rubies are also mined in other places on the planet – for example, in Mozambique. The largest ruby ​​sold at auction was Sunrise. Its weight is 25,59 carats, and its cost is S30,3 million. That is, each carat of this unique gem was worth more than $1 million.

2nd place – blue diamond

Fig. 9. Blue diamond – price $50 per carat

Let’s move on to the champions of our TOP. So what is the most expensive gemstone in the world? Of course it’s a diamond! But colored diamonds are recognized as the most valuable. Second place rightfully belongs to the rarest blue diamond of the Fancy Vivid Blue shade. If the mass of such a stone is small, then the cost of 1 carat reaches $50 thousand. However, the larger the gem, the more expensive each carat is. Thus, the 12-carat The Blue Moon of Josephine, which was auctioned in 2015 in Geneva, cost the buyer $48,4 million—about $4 million per carat. The most famous and expensive blue and blue diamonds are mined in Australia and, of course, in South Africa.

1st place – red diamond

Fig. 10. Red diamond – price from $500 to $000 per carat

So, it’s time to finally answer the question of what is the most expensive stone in the world. This is the rarest red diamond of pure Fancy Red hue, of which there are only about a hundred in the world. A red diamond cannot be bought in a jewelry store, but if it appears at an auction, it becomes a sensation. It is almost impossible to find stones whose weight exceeds 1 carat. But even then, the price of this carat will be in the range from 0,5 to $1 million. The most expensive and largest red diamond is the Moussaieff Red, a 5,11-carat crystal with a trillion cut. Some time ago, the stone was bought for $8 million. That is, each carat of this king of diamonds cost the buyer approximately $1,56 million.

Why buy expensive and rare stones

What makes diamonds so expensive? Firstly, owning them is prestigious. You stand head and shoulders above the rest because you can afford real treasures. And secondly, this is an excellent investment. Diamond prices are constantly rising, and production around the world is falling. Diamonds are becoming scarcer, and scarcity is the main factor driving up prices. Experts note that in the current year 2022 alone, the cost of stones has increased by approximately 20%, and this is not the limit. So, owning a large loose diamond or a stunning piece of jewelry with this stone is a great idea. And we will be happy to help you in its implementation. Which diamonds are best to buy for the purpose of a good investment are described in the article “Investing in Diamonds: Many Pros and a Few Cons.” The diamonds we offer are presented in our catalog. Please note that all of our stones are certified by the independent gemological center of Moscow State University, and when purchasing a diamond you will be given a certificate for the stone.

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