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What metal is included in Limonite?

LIMONITE – a general term for iron hydroxides (mainly goethite). In practice, limonite is a mixture of unidentified iron hydroxide and oxide minerals – a mineral aggregate of characteristic appearance, location and origin. Typically, there are no visually distinguishable crystals in this mixture, except for pseudomorphs – remaining forms of crystals, such as pyrite or siderite, replaced by the minerals that make up limonite.
When analyzing a mixture by instrumental methods, in addition to the mineral goethite, the minerals lepidocrocite, giesingerite, pitticite, jarosite, hematite, maghemite and others can be found in it. These minerals may be present in varying proportions, but goethite usually predominates.
In the field, geologists are unable to identify the minerals of the mixture, so the use of the general term limonite is justified. Moreover, when the determination of minerals in the microcosm does not in any way promote geological surveying, searches and exploration of mineral deposits. In Bukanov V.V. (2007, p.190) limonite is the former name for a porous cryptocrystalline mass of hydrogoethite, often with an admixture of lepidocrocite. English name: Limonite Isolated and described for the first time: Limonite has been known since ancient times.
According to, the name limonite was given by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in 1813 (the work is not cited there). Origin of the name: From the Greek λειμών – damp place
New products with Limonite in the product catalog Products containing Limonite are presented in the following categories:

  • class Oxides (oxides, hydroxides, V [5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
    • subclass Hydroxides (hydroxides)
      • not a mineral Limonite
        • variety Plumbolimonite

        Adlerstein (adlerstein) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 13); a type of bean ore, small concretions of iron oxides/hydroxides, mainly goethite and/or lepidocrocite, with a core of clay minerals, the literal translation from German to English is eaglestone (eagle stone), see. aetite
        Alumolimonite (alumolimonite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides with a high aluminum content (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 23); aluminum-containing variety of limonite (
        Anomalite (anomalite) – (1) a mixture of limonite and manganese hydroxides, pseudomorph of augite or diopside (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 29); (2) in 1876, George Augustus Koenig named this “mineral” because of its anomalousness: with a content of ~30% Mn, it did not give a characteristic reaction to manganese due to the presence of nickel and cobalt (3%); brown to almost black pseudomorph of jeffersonite (zinc- and manganese-bearing variety of augite) (
        Anthosiderite (anthosiderite) – pseudomorphosis of quartz and limonite after cummingtonite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 30); pseudomorphosis of quartz and goethite after cummingtonite (
        Aetite (aetite) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p.43); i) a concretion consisting of a hard shell of hydrated iron oxide, within which the yellow iron oxide gradually becomes softer towards the center, which may be hollow, ii) synonym eaglestone, a walnut-sized concretion of clay iron ore believed by the ancients , the eagle takes into its nest to facilitate the laying of eggs
        Bean Ore (bean ore, bohnerz) – a morphological variety of limonite, considered as a mineral; Krivovichev V.G. (2008, p.60): mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite); limonite variety, local name for massive limonite with lentil texture; VSEGEI Geological Dictionary: synonym of the term swamp ore
        Swamp ore (bog iron ore) – a genetic variety of limonite, considered as a mineral; Krivovichev V.G. (2008, p.62): mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite); deposit of soft, porous limonite, impregnated with plant debris, clay and detrital material, formed in swamps and shallow lakes as a result of precipitation from iron-containing waters and the oxidizing action of algae, iron bacteria or the atmosphere, sometimes used as iron ore, synonym term bog ironstone
        Swamp Ore (bog ore, marsh ore) – an accumulation of organogenic-mineral, mainly ferruginous compounds in the form of large nodules or solid slabs of considerable thickness, formed in lakes and swamps, and sometimes in the lower horizons of bog-podzolic soils; synonyms: bean ore, sod ore (VSEGEI Geological Dictionary); mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 62)
        Swamp iron (bog iron) – FeO(OH) nH2O, synonym for limonite (
        Brown iron ore (brown iron ore, brauneisenerz) – goethite, hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 69); synonym of goethite or limonite (
        Brown ocher (brown ochre, brown ocher) – a type of limonite in color and consistency; Krivovichev V.G. (2008, p.69): mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite); FeO(OH)nH2O, synonym for limonite
        Brown glass head (brauner glaskopf, browner glaskopf) – a brown, kidney-shaped variety of limonite with a smooth shiny surface of the buds (spherulites); Krivovichev V.G. (2008, p.69): mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite); synonymous with goethite or limonite, the term broadly refers to any brown, grape-shaped mineral; Bukanov V.V. (2007, p.190): kidney-shaped goethite aggregates with a shiny surface and a radial fibrous structure
        Brown hematite (brown hematite) – goethite, iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 70); this name was applied to goethite by Jameson (1816), a synonym for limonite (
        Brown iron stone (brauneisenstein, braun-eisenstein) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 70); synonym of goethite or limonite (
        Brown iron ore (brown iron ore, brauneisenstein, brauneisenerz) – the general name of ores consisting of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 70); iron hydroxides (Betekhtin A.G., 2007, p. 83); accumulations of natural iron hydroxides in their mass, as a rule, are hydrated mixtures of goethite with lepidocrocite, as well as silica hydroxides, clay matter and others, such mixtures are usually called brown iron ores (Betekhtin A.G., 2007, p. 279)
        Vierzonite (vierzonite) – opal or a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 79)
        Galmey (galmey, galmei) – (1) a mixture of hemimorphite, smithsonite, limonite and others (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 89); (2) synonym of calamine, the name calamine was introduced by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (Vallerius) in 1747, it was used for secondary zinc minerals often found in the mixture (
        Gel-goethite (gel-goethite) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p.95); synonym for limonite (
        Hepatin (hepatine) – a mixture of cuprite, limonite and colloidal silica (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 95); hepatin-erz – chrysocolla with impurities (
        Hydrosiderite (hydrosiderite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 104); synonym for limonite (
        Hydroferrite (hydroferrite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 104); synonym for limonite (
        Hyposisiderite (hyposiderite) – limonite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 106); FeO(OH)nH2O, synonym for limonite (
        Mountain yellow (berggelb) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 110); FeO(OH)nH2O, synonym for limonite (
        Mountain yellow (bergelb) = Mountain yellow
        Sod ore (rasenerz) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) in the form of nodules (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 121); FeO(OH)nH2O, synonym for limonite (
        Iron ocher (iron ochre) – goethite, hematite or limonite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 134)
        Yellow ocher (yellow ocher, yellow ochre) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) or goethite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 135)
        Klapperstein (klapperstein) – (1) a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 167); (2) German name for a stone that rattles, usually a flint nodule that contains a partially filled cavity formed by the replacement of a fossil sponge, and where the internal parts have separated and rattle inside
        Conchylitis (conchilite, conchilites) – (1) limonite nodules with magnetite or goethite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 176); (2) the name of the shell-like nodules of limonite or goethite (
        Xanthosiderite (xanthosiderite) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 184); FeO(OH)nH2O, synonym for limonite (
        Limbilit (limbilite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) and fayalite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 199)
        Limnit (limnite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 200); a recently formed variety of limonite (swamp ore), containing a lot of water (
        Limonitohelitis (limonitogelite, limonogelite) – colloidal aqueous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 200); instead of limonitogelite, spelling liminitogelite, FeO(OH) nH2O, a variety of stilpnosiderite, which is a colloidal form of limonite (
        Manganolimonite (manganolimonite) – a mixture of iron and manganese hydroxides (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 216)
        Melinite (melinite) – (1) a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite), halloysite and opal (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 225);
        (2) a type of soft, oily clay common in Bavaria and probably identical to bole, which is a fatty clay containing more than 24% water, and colored with iron (iron aluminosilicate?) (
        Myrmalm (myrmalm) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 232); Swedish name for limonite, FeO(OH) nH2O(
        Mot (moth) – zinc-containing hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p.236)
        Soft Ore (soft ore, weicherz) – (1) hematite or hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 240);
        (2) i) soft ore is a term used in the Lake Superior region [located on the Canada-US border] to denote an earthy, friable iron ore consisting primarily of hematite or limonite (goethite) and containing from 45% up to 60% iron, ii) weicherz – a synonym for the mineral acanthite (Ag2S)
        Lake Ore (lake ore) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 254); disc-shaped or irregularly shaped concretionary mass of iron oxyhydroxide (Fe 3+) up to 1 m thick or a layer of yellow porous layered limonite, formed along the boundaries of some lakes, lacustrine analogue swamp iron ore (bog iron) (
        Liver Ore (lebererz) – (1) a mixture of cuprite, iron hydroxides (limonite) and colloidal silica (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 273); (2) i) lebererz (according to Agricola) – a synonym for marcasite, ii) lebererz (according to Werner) – a synonym for unclean cinnabar (with idrealite)
        Plumbolimonite (plumbolimonite) – a mixture of iron hydroxides (limonite) containing up to 14 wt. % lead (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p.278)
        Röthel (röthel) – a mixture of hydrous iron oxides (limonite) (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 293); rötel – a red, earthy, soft mixture of hematite and clay, sometimes with small amounts of feldspar and quartz, used since Paleolithic times as paint (
        Royit (royite) – dark quartz with inclusions of iron hydroxides (limonite) and biotite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 298)
        Sideroborine (sideroborin) – a mixture of sassolin and iron hydroxides (limonite)
        Resin Copper Ore (kupferpecherz) – (1) a mixture of cuprite, iron hydroxides (limonite) and colloidal silica (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 319); (2) blackish glassy heterogeneous pseudomorphs on chalcopyrite (
        Umber (umbra) – a mixture of hydrated iron oxides (limonite) or a mixture contaminated with impurities of halloysite and brucite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 354)
        Ferrite (ferrite) – (a) pseudomorphosis after olivine; (b) iron, a constituent of steel; (c) synthetic brownmillerite; (d) hydrous iron oxides (limonite); (e) the purest, almost nickel-free native iron (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 364)
        Ferrogel (ferrogel) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite) or hydrated hematite (Krivovichev V.G., 2008, p. 366)
        Ferrohydrite (ferrohydrite) – hydrous iron oxides (limonite)

        Composition (formula): Fe 3+ compounds with oxygen and hydroxyl

        Color: Light to dark brown, sometimes yellowish brown (; in dense masses – black, in porous masses – brown, in powdery masses (ochre) – yellow-brown (Betekhtin A.G., 2007, p.83-84)

        Trait Color: Tan to red (
        Transparency: Opaque
        Luster: Earthy
        Hardness: from 4 to 1, depending on the physical condition
        Density (specific gravity), g/cm 3 : 3,3-4,0 (Betekhtin A.G., 2007, p. 380)

        Special properties: Limonite (and its main component goethite) is recognized by its unclear crystalline forms, brown streak and yellow-brown ocher impurities.
        Limonite melts under the blowpipe; When heated for a long time, it becomes highly magnetic. In a glass tube it releases water, turns red, turning into anhydrous Fe2O3. Slowly dissolves in HCl.

        The ocher masses of limonite, when rubbed between the fingers, give the feeling of sand, and not a greasy, greasy substance, as when rubbing the similar-colored powder variety of jarosite.

        Dense solid or porous spongy or powdery masses; there are kidney-shaped and stalactite forms, concretions and pseudomorphs of limonite based on iron minerals

        Limonite is formed under exogenous conditions during the decomposition of iron-containing sulfides, siderite, and ferruginous silicates in oxidation zones (iron transforms into the form Fe 3+ ). Found in formations such as iron hats, laterites, and swamp ores.

        Limonite formed deposits of good quality iron ores, which were an important raw material for the smelting of cast iron and steel in blast furnaces.

        Limonite stone is said to strengthen endurance and stimulate inner strength, especially in extreme conditions. It is believed that the stone limonite can protect against ill-wishers and prevent energy overloads. The stone limonite supposedly develops the ability of telepathy and helps to pull oneself out of the swamp of inertia and stagnation. Limonite stone is also credited with the ability to get rid of confusion of thoughts.

        Limonite is a mineral belonging to the large family of iron oxides, also known as brown iron ore. The variability of the composition of the mineral is due to its different origin, which determines its properties. As for the name of the stone, it was invented a long time ago and indicates that it belongs to the ores of meadow origin. The word “leimon” translated from Greek means “meadow”.

        Composition and characteristics of the mineral

        The composition of limonite includes the following components: goethite, lepidocrocite and water, which collects in the mineral as a result of its adsorption properties. In some varieties the amount of water can be up to 90%. Detailed studies have shown that brown iron ore also contains various impurities, the most common of which is alumina, which is a product of decomposed organic matter. Sometimes some silicon salts can act as impurities. Somewhat less often, oxides of chromium, titanium, nickel and phosphorus can be seen in the composition of the stone.

        It is due to the presence of various impurities that the color of limonite is formed. As a rule, it can vary from light brown to dark brown shades. If the crystal has a high density, then it may have an almost black color. Another important characteristic of the mineral is its luster, which can be metallic, matte or silky. As for hardness, it all depends on the composition and origin of the stone.

        Interestingly, the mineral is completely capable of dissolving upon prolonged contact with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The fracture of this stone is earthy and can often be conchoidal.

        It is known that iron ores have pronounced magnetic characteristics. In the case of limonite, this cannot be said. Only as a result of prolonged heating is it able to exhibit magnetic properties. Heat treatment allows you to get rid of some impurities.

        Origin of the mineral

        Brown iron ore is a formation of a secondary type, the formation of which occurs in the area of ​​oxidation of iron deposits. As with most other minerals, bacteria have a huge influence on its formation. Thanks to their work, the decomposition of organic remains occurs – this factor determines the impurities that make up the stone.

        In hot climate zones, limonite is formed due to the dissolution of silicate and carbonate rocks. Large deposits of the mineral are located in places where there were once swamps and lakes.

        Huge deposits are located in Russia. For industrial use, brown iron ore is mined in Siberia and the Tomsk region. Significant deposits of it are located in the Urals. In this region, the mineral appeared as a result of chemical weathering of some igneous rocks.

        Application of limonite

        Brown iron ore is widely used in the metallurgical industry for the production of steel and cast iron alloys. Earthy limonite is successfully used as a molding material. This type of stone has found its application in the chemical industry for the production of paints.

        Due to its unique shades and shape, limonite is widely used in the jewelry industry. After some processing, the mineral is used to make beautiful jewelry, some of which are very expensive.

        Practice has shown that the stone goes well with silver. In most cases, it is this noble metal that is used to make frames for limonite. Just a few decades ago, few people used the stone in jewelry. But with the advent of new processing technologies, the situation has changed greatly.

        Iron is extracted from limonite. Modern processing technologies make it possible to increase the amount of material obtained through certain chemical reactions. The only difficulty in implementing this process was the presence of various impurities that inhibit many chemical reactions or affect the final processing product.

        Limonite does not have healing properties, so it is not used in stone therapy to treat various pathologies.

        Interesting Facts

        Many minerals have a rich history. In ancient times, priests used stones in their rites and magical rituals. But limonite cannot be called popular among clergy. Also, the stone is not in demand in astrology.

        Some varieties of limonite have unusual structures, making them attractive to collectors. 5 years ago, one of these stones was sold to an unknown collector for a record amount of several tens of thousands of dollars.

        The history of limonite is very ancient and dates back more than 10 million years. Even in the times of the pagans, the mineral was used for rituals. For these purposes, it was subjected to heat treatment and further grinding. In one of these treatments, it was discovered that the stone could be used to obtain iron. It was this fact, according to many scientists, that gave rise to the Iron Age. The reliability of this hypothesis is still being debated today.

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