Geological classification

What metals are mined in the Altai Territory?


Abstract of a scientific article on Earth sciences and related environmental sciences, author of the scientific work – Viktor Nikolaevich Korzhnev

The article presents data on iron ores in the Altai Territory, including the Kholzunsky, Beloretsk, Insky magnetium deposits, and the Kharlovsky titanomagnetite deposit. Iron ore resources are estimated at 2,5 billion tons, and forecast reserves are more than 1,1 billion tons. The patterns of distribution of mineralization and prospects for the development of the region are considered. i Nadoeli bannery? Vy vsegda mojete otklyuchit advertisement.

Similar topics of scientific work on Earth sciences and related environmental sciences, author of the scientific work – Korzhnev Viktor Nikolaevich

Geodynamic control of Riphean-Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary mineralization in the northern part of Gorny Altai Metallogeny of the middle massifs of Kazakhstan
Features of the evolution of exogenous mineralization in the Early Precambrian Mineral resource base and prospects for the integrated use of titanomagnetite and ilmenite magmatic deposits in Russia Features of the chemical composition of the ores of the Sydinsky deposit of ferruginous quartzites (Eastern Sayan)
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The article presents information about iron ores in the Altai region, including deposits Holsunskogo, Beloretsk, Jnskogo magnetitovyh, deposits of titanium-magnetite Charlovskogo. Resources of iron ore estimated at 2.5 billion tons, and probable reserves of over 1.1 billion tons. Regularities of the distribution of mineralization and prospects of development of the area.

Text of the scientific work on the topic “Altai iron ore region in Russia”

Section 2 Section 2 UDC 553.31. 38.51.31 ALTAI IRON ORE DISTRICT IN RUSSIA Altai State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University named after. V.M. Shukshina, Biysk E-mail: The article presents data on iron ores in the Altai Territory, including the Kholzunsky, Beloretsk, Insky magnetium deposits, and the Kharlovsky titanomagnetite deposit. Iron ore resources are estimated at 2,5 billion tons, and forecast reserves are more than 1,1 billion tons. The patterns of distribution of mineralization and prospects for the development of the region are considered. Key words: complex magnetite-germanium-apatite-rare metal ores, complex titanomagnetite-ilmenite-vanadium and alumina ores, magnetite ores. The Altai iron ore region is located in the southern part of the Altai Territory, the western part of the Altai Republic and the adjacent regions of the East Kazakhstan region. This is the territory of the Altai Mountains, including the Korgon trough, limited on the west by the North-Eastern shear zone, along which it borders the Rudny Altai. The Altai iron ore region stretches in the northwestern submeridional direction for more than 600 km, with an average width of 10 to 50 km. It unites numerous nearby deposits and manifestations of hematite, hematite-magnetite, and magnetite iron ores. Small deposits and manifestations of manganese were also found here. The southwestern part of the Altai iron ore region is located on the territory of Kazakhstan (not discussed in the article). The first information about the presence of magnetite ores in the Altai iron ore region was obtained in 1774 in connection with the discovery of the Beloretsk deposit. In 1951-1955. As a result of prospecting work, such deposits of magnetite ores were discovered as Kholzunskoye, Inskoye, Timofeevskoye, as well as titanomagnetite ores – Kharlovskoye. Currently, the largest deposits are prepared for development: Beloretskoye, Inskoye, Kholzunskoye, Kharlovskoye. The works of scientists from SNNGGiMS were of great importance in the study of the Altai iron ore region: A.S. Kalugina, T.S. Kalugina, I.A. Kalugina, E.G. Kasandrova, V.I. Ivanova, L. I. Shabalin and others. Exploration work for iron and manganese in the Altai iron ore region was carried out by geologists and geophysicists from the Western State University under the leadership of V.V. Bessonenko, E.N. Volodina, A.V. Gruzdeva, E.F. Zaporozhsky, YAR. Zil-berman, S.S. Zimina, V.M. Mineeva, In N. Korzhneva, B.N. Lapina, I.P. Pi-ven, A.N. Prokhorova, Yu.V. Robertus, S.A. Romanovich, P.S. Uskova and others. Geological exploration work at the Beloretskoye, Inskoye, Kholzunskoye and Kharlovskoye fields was carried out under the leadership of E.K. Veselova, Z.A. Glushchenko, A.I. Grishko, A.V. Gruzdeva, S.M. Glebova, A.Ya. Doronina, E.I. Evdokimova, P.V. Ershova, G.V. Ishenko-voy, A.V. Zyabkina, A.S. Kalugina, A.M. Komarova, E.N. Kochanova, B.N. Luzgina, A.A. Mesyaninova, L.M. Polovnikova, K.G. Sakovich, N.I. Safronova, M.I. Se-leverstova, E.N. Tribunsky, M.A. Us-treich, L.I. Shabalina and others. Currently, the development of the Altai iron ore region requires a large investment of money. Its investment attractiveness is high, because. In recent years, it has been established that the Kholzunskoye deposit is represented by complex magnetite-germanium-apatite-rare earth ores, and the Kharlovskoye deposit is represented by titanomagnetite-ilmenite-vanadium and alumina ores. The article was prepared on the basis of personal observations and analysis of published literature. It summarizes the results of the study of industrially significant deposits of the Altai iron ore region, determines the patterns of mineralization location and proposes options for the development of deposits. Research results and discussion The problems of supplying iron ores to the Kuznetsk and West Siberian metallurgical plants are likely to worsen in the near future. By 2040, almost all the mines supplying these plants, except for Tashtagol, will exhaust their reserves [1]. In this regard, the Inskoye, Beloretskoye and Kholzunskoye magnetite deposits, prepared for development, will be developed. Estimated reserves exceed 1,1 billion tons (Table 1), forecast resources sy iron ores on Russian territory – more than 2,5 billion tons [2-3]. At the same time, the Kharlovskoye deposit of titanium-magnetite ores will be mined. The Beloretskoye deposit of magnetite ores is located in the Zmeino-Gorsky district of the Altai Territory: 150 km from the station. Rush to the Rubtsovsk-Novokuznetsk railway and 45 km from the city of Zmeinogorsk. It is located 650 km from the West Siberian Metallurgical Plant (ZSMZ). The absolute elevations of the relief are 650-940 m. The deposit is confined to the Belorets-ko-Krokhalikha zone of magnetic anomalies with a total length of 13 km and a width of 1-3 km, with stresses from 5000 to 60 gamma. The deposit is located within the North-Eastern shear zone among a metamorphosed volcanic-sedimentary strata, attributed, based on the findings of fauna in its upper reaches, to the Lower Devonian and underlain by the calc-sand-shale strata of the Upper Silurian. The rocks are complicated by folding and longitudinal disjunctions, crushing, foliation and boudinage, healed during contact metamorphism. The ore-bearing strata is intruded and metamorphosed by the Tigirek intrusion of granites of Upper Paleozoic age, located at a distance of 0,8-1,0 km from the surface from the ore bodies, falling towards the massif at an angle of 50°, with an unclear direction and angle of incidence of the contact surface of the granites. The ore-bearing Devonian strata is divided into four members (from bottom to top): carbonate under-ore with a thickness of up to 400 m, ore – 140 m, carbonate over-ore – up to 340 m and sandstone – 270 m. The carbonate members are composed of marbled limestones with interlayers of metamorphic quartz schists. biotite-feldspar-amphibole composition, sometimes with chlorite, epidote, tourmaline, pyrrhotite. The sandstone member is composed of hornfelsed sand- chaniks and shales of quartz-biotite-feldspathic composition with thin amphibolites. In the ore member with a cut-off iron content of 25%, two parallel sheet-like ore bodies were identified, consistent in occurrence and thickness, with dimensions along the strike of 1440 and 1400 m, along the dip without clinking – 843 and 783 m with average thicknesses of 28 and 22 m and ore areas – 57 and 39 thousand m. According to the conditional new conditions – with a cut-off iron content of 18%, a minimum thickness of the ore body and a maximum barren interlayer of 5 m – the contours of these bodies over a larger extent constitute a single deposit with a thickness in the central part at horizons of 70-210 m up to 140 m The ore member lies conformably with the host rocks, in the northwestern part of the ore field almost in the middle of the carbonate section, and in the southeastern part at the transition of carbonate rocks to volcanic-sedimentary rocks, dipping at an angle of 5060° to the northeast . In addition to magnetite ores, the member includes marbles, sometimes disseminated with magnetite, skarns, layers of metamorphic quartz-biotite-amphibole schists with chlorite, magnetite, epidote, etc. The ores of the deposit are banded, disseminated, continuous and breccia. Magnetite-musketite varieties predominate. The main associated minerals: calcite, actinolite, salite and ferrosalite, andradite, epidote-clinozoisite, biotite, quartz, feldspars, also rare – chlorite, serpentine, scapolite, olivine, spinel, clino-humite, tourmaline, ankerite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite. Magnetite is represented by lamellar musketovite and granular magnetite of several generations. The deposit is considered to be volcanogenic-sedimentary, having undergone regional and contact metamorphism, or contact-metasomatic, associated with a hypothetical intrusion of gabbies. rho-diorites [4]. The reserves of explored and predicted magnetite ores of the Beloretsk deposit (Table 1) allow us to classify it as large [2-3]. Prospects for increasing reserves are associated with adjacent areas – Batalikha and Ponomarevsky. When enriching ores with a gross iron content of 23-30% by dry and wet magnetic separation after grinding to 0,2 and 0,1 mm, concentrates with an iron content of 58-61% were obtained with a yield of 3347% and an extraction of 72-82%. The content of sulfur and phosphorus in the concentrate is 0,12 and 0,006-0,009%, the waste rock is calcareous-siliceous. It is planned to develop the deposit by quarrying and then by mining. Ore areas amount to up to 100 thousand m2, annual production can reach 5-6 million tons and with adjacent areas – up to 12 million tons [4]. The Inskoye magnetite ore deposit is located in the Charyshsky district of the Altai Territory in the northwestern part of the Altai Mountains, 164 km southeast of the station. Rush on the Rubtsovsk-Novokuznetsk railway and 75 km from the city of Zmeinogorsk. The distance to ZSMZ, a possible ore consumer, is 650 km. The absolute elevation of the relief is 6601200 m. The host deposit is a folded volcanic-sedimentary strata of the Emsian stage of the Lower Devonian. Iron-bearing Devonian deposits are underlain by carbonate rocks of Silurian age. Both strata, as well as the ores, are intruded by granites of the Tigirek massif and diorites, as well as gabbro-diorites of its marginal facies. Small massifs of Devonian subvolcanic quartz porphyries, plagioporphyries, felsites and dikes of diabase porphyrites are distinguished. Along the contact with granites, carbonate rocks of the Silurian are marbleized and often transformed into skarns, and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the Devonian are transformed into quartz-plagioclase, biotite and other hornfels and skarns. ny, rocks such as leptites and leptite gneisses. The ore members of the iron-bearing Korgon formation are composed of quartz-albite with oligoclase, K-feldspar, rare biotite and zircon, rocks with granoblastic, blastoporphyritic and micropegmatite structures. Judging by the relics, the primary ore complex consisted mainly of acid-alkaline tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones, albitophyres, diabases and gabbro-diabases. The latter are considered by some geologists as an ore-bearing intrusion. The thickness of the ore packs is several hundred meters. The supra-ore member is dominated by quartz and quartz-free albitophyres, their tuffs, tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks containing in the upper part carbonate layers with Emsian fauna, layers of intermediate and basic volcanic rocks. The probable thickness of the unit is 500-1000 m; it is composed of acidic tuffs and tuffites with lenses of liparite-andesitic tuffs and a horizon of mineralized calcareous tuffites and tuff siltstones, to which magnetite ores are confined. Outcrops of weakly metamorphosed rocks of the ore member are observed 5 km east of the deposit in the upper reaches of the Pasechny spring. Here they consist of calcareous siltstones, sandstones, tuff sandstones and tuffs enriched in dispersed magnetite with an iron content of about 10-16% with a horizon thickness of 100-200 m. In the ore member, rare lenses and layers of coarse-grained marble are noted in ores and skarns. At the base of the ore member, skarns and hornfels occur in places, but more often the ores lie directly on “plagiogranites”, clearly separated from the host rocks. The thickness of the ore member reaches 200 m, on average it is 50-60 m. The ores are solid and banded, less often disseminated: spotted, brecciated or veined. Among the main minerals identified: hedenbergite-diopside, pargasite and common hornblende, biotite, epidote, clinochlore and pennine, albite, grossular andradite, hastingsite, tremolite, anthophyllite, quartz, carbonates, sphene, tourmaline, scapolite, chondrodite, spinel. There are pyrite, pyrrhotite, and rare chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Among the ores, amphibole-pyroxene-magnetite varieties predominate; ores with garnet, pyroxene and sulfides are less common. The main mass of magnetite is fine-grained, with an end granoblastic structure, with relics of earlier generations of fine-grained, porphyroblastic and ambiguous magnetite. The ore member, or ore-skarn zone, lies in conformity with the bedding and plicative dislocations of the supra-ore member at angles of incidence on the wings of up to 50-60°, in places up to vertical and overturning to the northwest, with a general inclination to the southwest at an angle of 15 -20°. The ore zone is divided by two transverse faults into the Southwestern, Central and Northeastern sections. Longitudinal disturbances are also noted. The main masses of ore are concentrated at depths of up to 200-300 m. To the southwest, the ore zone is cut off by post-ore granites, but it is assumed that its blocks may also be located in the depths of the intrusive massif. Probably continuation of the ore zone to the northwest and northeast. The length of the zone with industrial mineralization is 4,7 km with a width of up to 100400 m. Inside it, in cross sections, from 1 to 4 ore bodies are observed, forming folds, sometimes broken by fractures. The dimensions of the main ore bodies are 180, 800, 800 and 1000 m in length and 150, 370, 370 and 640 m in dip with average thicknesses of 8, 40, 33 and 32 m and an ore area totaling up to 110 thousand m2. In general, the structure of the deposit is determined by the lithology and folding of the host strata, the granitization aureole and post-ore disturbances. It is assumed that the The deposit was formed either by contact-metasomatic means in a paragenetic connection with granites or gabbro-diabases, or is metamorphosed volcanogenic-sedimentary, or arose as metamorphogenic at the leading front of granitization. Ore bodies are identified with a cut-off iron content of 25% for balance and 20% for off-balance ores, with a minimum Altai iron ore deposits The minimum thickness of ore bodies and the maximum barren layers included in the calculation of reserves is 2 m. Ore reserves are shown in Table 1. Ores with an average Fe content of 45,2%, S -0,55 and P – 0,06%. In the South-Western area, a block of blast furnace ore can be identified with reserves of 19 million tons with a content of Fe – 57,7%, S – 0,02 and P -0,04%. Table 1 of the region in Russia [2-3, 5-7] Deposits Age index of host rocks Thickness, length of ore zone Average content Reval. in ores, % Explored reserves in million tons of ore Forecast ore reserves Kholzunskoe mag- Dl 100-400 m 28,9 magnetite ores to a depth of 1,1 km netite-germanium 8 km A, B, C1 – – 1,1 billion tons of magnesium apatite – 407,644 million tons of non-tite ore, rare earth C2 – 272,5 million tons of apatite – 0,7 million tons Beloretskoye magnet – 70-210 m 31,1 magnetite ores to a depth of 1,2 km non-tite x 13 km (max – up to 45,2 – A, B, C1 – with adjacent 57,3) 299,5 million tons in sections C2 – 43,3 million tons 500 million tons (up to a depth of 800 m) Inskoe magneti- S-Dl 100-400 m 45,2 A, B, C1 – to a depth of 1 km – The Altai Territory and the Altai Republic are not only beautiful mountains and deep rivers, but also places where mineral resources are concentrated. He spoke about plans to hold auctions for the right to use subsoil resources, as well as what exactly is being mined in the regions. Head of the Subsoil Use Department for the Siberian Federal District (Sibnedra) Alexey Partolin. Among the mineral resources of the Altai Mountains are gold, tungsten, molybdenum, bismuth, cobalt, lithium, tantalum, mercury, as well as silver and other rare non-ferrous metals. The Altai region is interesting for its metals, including non-ferrous metals, brown coal, mineral salts, marble, granite and other minerals. However, there are difficulties in their extraction, and quite significant ones. – Traditionally, the Altai Republic arouses interest in alluvial gold. And the Altai Territory includes alluvial and ore gold, and polymetals,” explains Alexey Partolin. – The difficulty lies in the presence of specially protected natural areas. Areas with deposits often fall within these territories. As for production, it is approximately the same from year to year. For example, in 2022 there were 2 tons 261 kg, and in 2023 – 3 tons 379 kg – this is for the entire department. The principle of holding auctions is multi-stage: first, the department receives applications, then a long journey of departmental requests begins. “Then the application is transferred for further work to the central office of the federal agency for subsoil use,” explains the head of the department. “Only after all this is it decided whether to include such areas in the list or not to include them for some reason.” In the first case, an auction is held next. To date, all received applications are being processed, and at the moment no sites are included in the list for 2024. “Of the unusual, more or less interesting applications, marble mining in the Altai Territory – the Dukovskoye deposit – is currently in the works,” the speaker adds. Last year there was already an auction for the development of the Pushtulim field, but it did not take place because there were no applications. Although it was initiated by one of the mining companies. “However, perhaps due to the high price of the starting payment, the company was unable to participate. Therefore, the auction did not take place. However, this year work continues on a similar, nearby field. As soon as the object is included in the list, we will announce an auction,” says Alexey Partolin. According to him, there are currently 1093 licenses for subsoil use in the Siberian Federal District, of which 63 were issued last year. – Of these, 24 are licenses for geological study. Placer gold is of traditional interest, although there are, of course, difficulties in issuing such licenses, because the territory of our constituent entities, including the Altai Republic, can be classified as recreational resort areas, and it is not always possible to issue such licenses. Somewhere there are specially protected areas, protective forest areas, and so on,” continues the head of the department. In addition, Sibnedra implements the functions of state geological research – the organization acts as a customer under contracts of this kind. Thus, this year the state contract for the project “Geology: Revival of a Legend” in the Altai Territory is ending. The main task is to search for silver-containing polymetallic ores in the Zmeinogorsk region. The cost of the contract was 253 million rubles. – And this year, literally two weeks ago, a contract was signed based on the results of a competition held on Zakharovskaya Square to assess the content of pyrite-polymetallic ores. Work will begin this year. The contract price was 343 million rubles. The contract period is three years,” adds Alexey Partolin. READ ALSO In Altai, illegal gold miners were sentenced to real terms As law enforcement officers found out, a foreigner with experience in processing production offered to earn extra money for an entrepreneur he knew from the Altai Territory (more details)

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