Geological classification

What minerals are mined in our region?

The Krasnodar Territory belongs to the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation and borders the Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea and Abkhazia (to enter the latter you must have a passport with you). By sea, the Krasnodar region borders with Crimea. The greatest length of the region from north to south is 327 km and from west to east – 360 km. The area of ​​the Krasnodar Territory is 75 sq km, the population is 485 million people (5,514). Geographically, most of the Krasnodar Territory belongs to the 2016rd time zone (the western part of the region from Anapa to the Kerch Strait is geographically located in UTC + 3). The Krasnodar region is included in the time zone designated by international standard as the Moscow Time Zone (MSK). The offset from UTC is +2:3. The Krasnodar region is located in the southwestern part of the North Caucasus, the 45th parallel divides it into approximately two equal parts. Natural conditions and climate The climate in most of the territory is temperate continental; on the Black Sea coast from Anapa to Tuapse there is a semi-dry Mediterranean climate; south of Tuapse there is a humid subtropical climate. Altitudinal climatic zonation is expressed in the mountains. Throughout the year, sudden changes in weather are typical – monthly, seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are significant. The foothills are characterized by hair dryers, which contribute to the rapid melting of snow in spring and increased flooding on rivers. In the Anapa-Novorossiysk-Gelendzhik area, bora with wind speeds of more than 15 m/s, sometimes more than 40 m/s is typical (in December 1997, bora with wind speeds of up to 47 m/s was observed). The average number of days with bora is 21 (in Novorossiysk there are more than 40), of which 18 are in the cold half of the year. The average January temperature on the plain is ?3. 5 °C, on the Black Sea coast 0. +6 °C, in Sochi +6 °C. The average temperature in July is +22…+24 °C. Annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 600 mm in the lowlands, up to 3242 mm or more in the mountains. Every spring the region is flooded with floods. In general, the region is characterized by hot and mild summers. Minerals Basically, the mineral resources of the Krasnodar region are represented by more than 60 species. There are reserves of oil, natural gas, cement marl, iodine-bromine waters, marble, limestone, sandstone, gravel, quartz sand, iron, copper apatite and serpentinite ores, rock salt, gypsum, mercury, and some gold. Most of the mineral deposits are in the foothills and mountainous regions of the Krasnodar Territory. But they also exist in the steppe part (mostly of non-metallic origin). Krasnodar region is the oldest oil-producing region in Russia. Oil and gas fields are located in the Azov-Kuban depression. Gas condensate fields stretch in a chain in the northern and eastern parts of the region along the Kanevsko-Berezansky and Armaviro-Nevinomyssky shafts, and oil and gas fields along the northern slope of the Greater Caucasus. Oil fields in the region: Serdyukovskoye, Berezanskoye, Maikopskoye, Leningradskoye, Starominskoye, Kushchevskoye, Novomikhailovskoye, Glubokoyarskoye, Kholmskoye, Akhtyro-Bugundyrskoye, Ukrainianskoye, Kaluga and Novodmitrovskoye. The latter is the largest oil field in the Krasnodar region. In the Khadyzhensky region, all fields are purely oil. Ferromanganese ores are widespread on the Taman Peninsula (Tamanskoye, Karabetovskoye, Vyshesteblievskoye, Zelenskoye, Zhelezny Rog, Golubitskoye, Starotitarovskoye, Shukhinskoye). The iron ore deposit was discovered in the area between the Belaya and Malaya Laba (Malobambakskoye) rivers near the villages of Perepravskaya, Khamketinskaya, and Gubskaya. The largest manganese deposit is Labinskoye. The largest copper deposit is Urupskoye. Mercury deposits: Belokamnoye, Sakhalinskoye, Perevalnoye. The apatite carbonate deposit is located near Psebay; phosphorite deposits – Tamanskoye and the area of ​​the Belaya and Malaya Laba river basins, 20 km from the village. Khamyshki (Kishinskoye), 18 km from the village. Kirovsky (Dogdachey) and on the watersheds of the Malaya Laba, Khodz, Gubs, Fars, Muzhichki and Meshok rivers. Barite deposits: Belorechenskoye (5 km from Dakhovskaya), Urushtenskoye, Malolabinskoye (6,5 km from Chernorechenskaya), Andryukovskoye (10 km from Khatsavitay), Mzymtinskoye and Aspidnoye. Table salt is mined in Shedoksky and Khansky from a depth of 250 to 1100 meters. Limestones: Medvezhyegorskoye (6 km from Derbentskaya), Northern Mountain (4 km from Ilskaya), Pravoberezhnoe (4 km from Shedok), Khodzhokhskoye (12 km from Kamennomostsky), Varenikovskaya village, village. Verkhne-Bakansky. The most interesting serpentinite deposits are: Armovskoye and Dakhovskoye. Reserves of cement marl are concentrated in the Novorossiysk region. In 2012 (as in 2011), three oil wells were put into operation in the Krasnodar Territory. However, the increase in oil production in 2012 was only 0,4%. Production of natural and associated gas in 2012 increased by 3,2%; and nonmetallic building materials – by 8,1%. Kuban has huge reserves of fossil materials for various types of construction: marble (Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi). granite, gravel (Gyulkevichi, Kropotkin), limestone (Varenikovskaya village, Verkhnebakansky village), quartz sand (Varenikovskaya village), molding sand (Sennaya village, Temryuk region). Economic potential The basis of the economic potential of the region is the agro-industrial, fuel and energy, transport, resort and recreational complexes, mechanical engineering, forestry, woodworking and furniture production, and the building materials industry. The agro-industrial complex determines the economy of the Krasnodar region. A quarter of the region’s total employed population works in agriculture. The total area of ​​farmland is 4,7 million hectares, which is 2,2% of all farmland and over 3% of arable land in the Russian Federation. A significant role in the economy of the region is played by the production of building materials, light and food industries. A number of large oil and gas pipelines of Russian and international importance pass through the territory of Kuban. A special place among them is occupied by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium and Blue Stream. Krasnodar region is the most fertile region of Russia. Here are some of the best black soils in the world (more than 4% of Russian and about 2% of world reserves). The Krasnodar Territory has a relatively powerful mineral resource base, providing a large number of industries and enterprises in the region with proven reserves of raw materials for the long term (15-40 years). There are quite large reserves of cement raw materials, gypsum and limestone, building stone, sand and gravel materials and brick and tile clays. More than 60 types of minerals have been discovered in the depths of the region. They mainly occur in foothill and mountainous areas. There are reserves of oil, natural gas, marl, iodine-bromine waters, marble, limestone, sandstone, gravel, quartz sand, iron and apatite ores, and rock salt. Mineral resources. The region’s raw material base is estimated at $407,8 billion. USA. Of these, 95% is the cost of non-metallic minerals (rock salt (77,2%), cement raw materials (4,19%), building materials (2,98%), limestone (3,4%), etc.). Hydrocarbon raw materials account for only 5%, of which gas – 3%, oil – 1,45%, coal – 0,08%, peat and oil shale reserves are estimated at 5 million dollars. USA, which is a small percentage. The depth of proven oil and gas reserves reaches 5 km. The state balance of the region includes 150 hydrocarbon fields, including 59 oil, 24 gas-oil, 40 gas, 23 gas-condensate, 4 oil-gas-condensate. The hydropower potential of the region is low. 77% of all hydropower reserves come from the Kuban River. In the upper reaches of the Kuban is a typically mountain river, beyond Kropotkin it is a flat river. On the territory of the region there are 42 deposits of mineral underground waters, of which 18 are exploited. The region is rich in thermal waters, which are used not only for medicinal purposes, but are also widely used in the national economy, being a source of cheap energy. The forests of Kuban are unique in terms of species diversity, ecological and resource potential. They occupy a fifth of the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. The total area of ​​forest fund land is 1659,6 thousand hectares, including 1367,1 thousand hectares of land covered with forest vegetation. 20% of beech and 17% of oak in Russia grow here. The basis of forest vegetation is formed by broad-leaved forests (oak forests, bushes, hornbeams), coniferous forests (pine forests, fir forests, spruce forests) are represented to a lesser extent. On an area of ​​44 thousand hectares, relict chestnut forests grow. The Krasnodar region is a comprehensive center of health, recreation and tourism, with a network of various enterprises specializing in the organization of sanatorium-resort treatment, health, sea, water, mountain sports and excursion and educational recreation. Education In the field of preschool education in the Krasnodar Territory, there are 1475 children’s institutions, which are attended by more than 143,2 thousand children. There are 1417 general educational institutions – schools, gymnasiums and lyceums, with more than 656 thousand people studying and about 47 thousand teachers teaching. The administration of the Krasnodar Territory pays special attention to ensuring accessibility of all levels of education, strengthening the social orientation of the general education system through the creation of conditions for organizing adequate nutrition for schoolchildren; development of physical education and sports in schools, use of health-saving educational technologies; targeted social support for orphans and children without parental care. In Kuban, as a whole, a network of 69 vocational schools and lyceums has been preserved, in which 33,8 thousand people study in 82 working professions. The number of institutions of secondary vocational education (together with branches) has increased to 140. At the same time, more than 119 thousand students study in 82 specialties. The educational process is provided by almost 7 thousand teachers, of whom 354 have an academic degree and 313 have an academic title. The number of institutions of higher professional education has also increased in the Krasnodar Territory (to 127); More than 131 thousand students are currently studying there. In 13 state universities and 56 branches of state universities, more than 100 thousand students receive education, in 21 non-state universities (18 of them have state accreditation) and 37 branches, the number of students is about 31 thousand. The vast majority of students receive higher education in accordance with state educational standards. Special mineral symbols are used to indicate deposits on maps. This allows you not to clutter the map with bulky inscriptions and fit a larger number of symbols and information. In addition, the designations of minerals are generally accepted, which makes them understandable to anyone. All symbols of mineral resources can be divided into several groups depending on the type of mineral: combustible, ore, non-metallic, semi-precious and mining chemical raw materials.

Mineral signs

Combustible minerals

Combustibles (fuels) include minerals that are used to produce energy by combustion. They are used to generate heat and electrical energy in thermal power plants, as well as in internal combustion engines to accelerate mechanisms and equipment. The table shows the symbols of minerals that are used to indicate deposits of flammable mineral resources on maps.

Symbol Name
Brown coal
oil shale
Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Peat

Ore minerals

Ore (metallic) minerals include metal ores, as well as native metals such as gold and silver. The most common sign on maps is iron ore. Symbols of ore minerals on the map can be indicated either in black, if the mineral is of sedimentary origin, or in red for minerals of igneous origin. From metal ores, pure metals and alloys are obtained, which are subsequently used in many industries. The table shows the symbols of minerals and their names related to ore minerals.

Symbol Name
Aluminum ores
Vanadium ores
Tungsten ores
Iron ores
Gold
Cobalt ores
Manganese ores
Copper ores
Molybdenum ores
Nickel ores
Tin ores
Platinum ores
Polymetallic ores
Mercury ores
Silver
Titanium ores
Uranium ores
Chrome ores

Non-metallic minerals

Non-metallic (also called non-metallic or common) minerals include those minerals and rocks that are used in natural processes, for example in construction. Mineral symbols and their names are shown in the table below.

Symbol Name
Asbestos
Clay
Granite
Graphite
Limestone
Kaolins (white clay)
Quartz
Магнезит
Marble
Mica
Talc

Gemstone raw materials

This type of minerals includes semi-precious and precious stones, which are used for the production of jewelry, parts of mechanisms where high precision is required, as well as in the production of certain types of measuring equipment. The symbols of such minerals used for marking on maps are indicated below.

Symbol Name
Diamonds
Ornamental stones

Mining chemical raw materials

Mining chemical raw materials include minerals that are used to produce inorganic chemicals and fertilizers. Such chemicals are subsequently widely used in many industries. Geographical designations of minerals related to mining chemical raw materials are indicated below.

Symbol Name
Apatity
Bor
Glauber’s salt
Dolomite
Potassium salts
Rock (table) salt
Sulfur
Phosphorites

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