Geological classification

What natural resources are there in Barnaul?

Abstract of a scientific article on agriculture, forestry, fisheries, author of the scientific work – Burlakova Lidiya Makarovna, Morkovkin Gennady Gennadievich

The land fund of the Altai Territory is 16799,6 thousand hectares. In its structure, as of January 1.01.2003, 11029,4, agricultural land occupied 65,7 thousand hectares (6658,5% of the region’s area), including arable land 39,7 thousand hectares (88%). The soil cover of the region testifies to the richness and diversity of its land resources. 1985% of arable land is represented by various subtypes of chernozems and chestnut soils. The soils of the Altai Territory can produce high yields only for a short time and are subject to a rapid plowing process. For 1996-1150,4 The area of ​​erosion-hazardous and eroded arable land increased from 2135,4 to 3768,6 thousand hectares, deflation-hazardous and deflated soils from 4455,4 to 100 thousand hectares. Over 1 years of agricultural use of chernozems in the Altai Territory, half of the percentage of humus in them has been lost. In connection with the anthropogenic transformation of soils, the need has arisen for a more in-depth study of anthropogenesis and agrogenesis in various arable (agrogenic) soils. The organization of territories with agricultural landscapes of different levels of ecological conditions on a scale of at least 25000:XNUMX with the regimes of their use should become the basis of soil protection systems. i Nadoeli bannery? Vy vsegda mojete otklyuchit advertisement.

Similar topics of scientific work on agriculture, forestry, fisheries, author of scientific work – Burlakova Lidiya Makarovna, Morkovkin Gennady Gennadievich

Strategic management of land resources in the management system of sustainable development of agricultural environmental management Analysis of the state and dynamics of properties of arable soils in the steppe zone of the Altai Territory
Anthropogenic transformation of arable soils in the steppe zone of the Altai Territory Assessment of the temporal dynamics of the structure of agricultural landscapes and soil fertility indicators in the steppe zone of the Altai Territory Main stages of land use development in Altai (ecological aspect)
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Text of the scientific work on the topic “Land resources of the Altai Territory and problems of their rational use”

UDC 332.33 (571.15) L.M. BURLAKOVA, LAND RESOURCES OF THE ALTAI TERRITORY AND PROBLEMS OF THEIR RATIONAL USE The land fund of the Altai Territory is 16799,6 thousand hectares. In its structure, as of January 1.01.2003, 11029,4, agricultural land occupied 65,7 thousand hectares (6658,5% of the region’s area), including arable land 39,7 thousand hectares (2000%). Compared to 174,4, the area of ​​arable land decreased by 2004 thousand hectares. The change in the area of ​​arable land during this time occurred as a result of its transfer to fallow land, as well as as a result of the transfer of part of the arable land after its fallowing into hayfields and pastures (Bivalkevich, Polyakov, Pudovkina, 1954). After the development of virgin and fallow lands (1955-1960), the area of ​​arable land in the region in 7,5 amounted to XNUMX million hectares. At the same time, the area under fallow lands, hayfields and pastures has sharply decreased. After the development of virgin and fallow lands and to the present day, the Altai Territory is a leader in the agricultural development of lands. Agricultural lands in the region, as noted above, occupy 65,7% of the territory of the region, in the Novosibirsk region – 47,3, in the Omsk region – 47,6, in the Kemerovo region – 27,8%. The soil cover of the region testifies to the richness and diversity of its land resources. 88% of arable land is represented by various subtypes of chernozems and chestnut soils. Hayfields and pastures have a more complex soil structure, which includes chernozem, gray forest, meadow-chernozem, meadow, and alluvial soils. In the region there are 589,6 thousand hectares of saline soils, 1004 thousand hectares of solonetzic and solonetzic soils, 765,7 thousand hectares of soils with high acidity. In a number of districts (Baevsky, Pankrushikhinsky, Burlinsky, Blagoveshchensky, Rodinsky, Mamontovsky, Pospelikhinsky, etc.), the area of ​​solonetz-solonchak complexes is 30-40 and more than 40%. About a third of all agricultural land is in dry zones with a hydrothermal coefficient of 0,8 to 0,6. Here, the main limiting factor is water, and to obtain guaranteed high yields of agricultural crops, irrigation is often required (Burlakova, Pudovkina, 1995). Soils of the Altai Territory, about which V.V. Dokuchaev wrote in his work “On the Question of Siberian Chernozem” (1954) that they are not rich, but rather tarry, i.e. can produce unusually high yields only for a short time, and are subject to a rapid plowing process. The entire subsequent agricultural history in Altai, especially after the development of virgin and fallow lands (1954-1955), showed the correctness of Dokuchaev’s foresight in relation to chernozems and other soils. The irrational use of land resources, and the underestimation of natural conditions with arid climate, complex terrain, and the loess-like nature of soil-forming rocks have contributed and are now contributing to the accelerated manifestation of many negative degradation processes leading to soil degradation, i.e. a set of processes that change the functions of soil as an element of the natural environment, quantitative and qualitative deterioration of its properties and regimes, and a decrease in the natural and economic significance of the land. In the Altai Territory, almost all possible soil degradation occurs: the development of erosion and deflation, salinization, alkalinization, acidification, dehumification, agrodepletion, pollution and deterioration of the chemical composition of soils. The Altai Territory is characterized by the simultaneous manifestation of several types of degradation. These include purely mechanical destruction of the soil cover, caused by various types of mining, construction and other work (for example, the construction of the 182 km long Kulunda Canal). Here, along with the mechanical destruction of the soil cover, degradations such as erosion, deflation, and secondary salinization also take place. The positive significance of the construction of the Kulunda Canal would be much higher if it were possible to prevent the development of the negative phenomena noted above along the canal route (Pudovkina, 1997). Degradations are even more important for the state of land resources, developing almost everywhere in the Altai Territory. Intensive plowing of slope lands of the forest-steppe, moderate-arid steppe zone and foothills, light soils of the dry-steppe zone without anti-erosion measures significantly accelerated the processes of their degradation under the influence of increased water erosion and deflation. In just 10 years (1980-1990), the area of ​​eroded arable land increased by 277,4 thousand hectares, deflated by 685,6 thousand hectares. For 1985-1996 The area of ​​erosion-hazardous and eroded arable land increased from 1150,4 to 2135,4 thousand hectares, deflation-hazardous and deflated soils – from 3768,6 to 4455,4 thousand hectares (Burlakova, 1997). The physical destruction of soils as a result of erosion and deflation is accompanied by significant, often catastrophic losses of humus, which are almost 6000 times greater than its biological losses that occur during the cultivation of agricultural crops (Burlakova, 2005). Over 100 years of agricultural use of chernozems in the Altai Territory, half of the percentage of humus in them has been lost. In the years after the development of virgin and fallow lands and currently in the arable soils of the region, there is a decrease in the thickness of the humus horizon and the humus content. The rate of loss of humus content per year varies and ranges from 0,023 to 0,1%, depending on the natural zone and the degree of erosion and deflation (Burlakova, Morkovkin, 2003). In 2000, the State Committee for Land Resources of Russia obtained data assessing the impact of damage from various types of degradation in different regions of the country on the quality and cost of land. According to these data, for the Altai Territory, the annual damage from humus losses of about 6000000 tons from various degradations amounts to 6,0-7,0 billion rubles (Goskomzem of Russia, 2000). In addition, in the region there is a problem of soil contamination with heavy metals, which is caused by their entry into the biosphere and high toxicity (Burlakova, Morkovkin, 2005). Getting involved In the biological cycle, entering the “soil – plant – human”, “soil – plant – animal – human” systems, heavy metals can have a significant negative impact on human health. In this regard, studies of possible ways of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants, as well as the search for ways to detoxify soils, are of scientific and practical interest. For the soils of the region, background contents for lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, cobalt, and mercury were established, which made it possible to identify the greatest total soil contamination in administrative regions. The highest total soil contamination with heavy metals was noted in Kurinsky, Zmeinogorsky, Pospelikhinsky and Rubtsovsky districts. Contamination of chernozem soils with heavy metals helps to reduce the number of microorganisms isolated on meat-peptone and starch-ammonia agar. It has been noted that with increasing soil contamination with heavy metals, the amount of fungal microflora increases. The noted changes in the microbiological community affect the processes of decomposition and synthesis of soil organic matter, introducing unfavorable changes in humus formation, the chernozem process, restoration and stabilization of soil fertility. Chernozem soils experience a constant and increasing deficiency of organic matter in agrocenoses, as well as basic macro- and microelements. The current state of land resources leads to many problems associated with their use. If various soil degradations are not stopped, then there is no need to think about any sustainable development in the Altai Territory. It is necessary to realize that only soils perform many global functions in the biosphere on which life on Earth depends. For humans, soil is the most important irreplaceable natural resource; it is the main and irreplaceable means of agricultural production, and therefore it deserves its own possible close attention and detailed study. In connection with the anthropogenic transformation of soils, the need has arisen for a more in-depth study of anthropogenesis and agrogenesis in various arable (agrogenic) soils. To what extent have the soils become agrogenic compared to virgin chernozems, and how many signs of chernozem formation remain in them? In this regard, it is important to return to the process of plowing, to establish the degree of plowing of soils, which will take their place when identifying series, species, and possibly other taxa of the studied soils. To do this, it is necessary to establish morphological, physical, physicochemical and chemical criteria for the plowing of agrogenic soils, as well as the time frame for the transformation of soils to various degrees of plowing (agrogenicity), and to trace the intensity and speed of these processes in various agricultural landscapes and agrocenoses. It is necessary to clearly understand that soil degradation such as erosion and deflation lead to the death of barely formed agrogenic soils. A decrease in the thickness of the humus horizon, humus content, and unfavorable changes in other properties is the result not so much of agrogenesis as of anthropogenic degradation, mainly erosion and deflation. Much attention is paid to this problem in the literature, but in reality the fight against erosion and deflation is not carried out intensively or not at all, mainly due to the lack of material capabilities. In 1997, we developed conceptual provisions for the rational use of land (Burlakova, 1997), which were based on the following principles: sufficiency, environmental requirements; economic opportunities. For the Altai Territory, 1 hectare is required for 1 person, approximately the same amount taking into account the market, i.e. in total ~ 2 ha of arable land. Environmental requirements have already been violated during the development of virgin and fallow lands, when in the steppe regions plowed area was 72-74%, and in many areas of Kulunda, according to A.I. Ignatovich (2004), – 90-93%. According to the third principle, there should be as much economic opportunity for arable land as can be used to carry out the full range of necessary measures to protect soils and reproduce soil fertility. It is necessary to abandon the use of unproductive, but technologically high-cost soils in arable land: saline, solonetzic, waterlogged, light in granulometric composition, and also located on slopes of more than 2° (4th category of land). The authors believe that the organization of territories with agricultural landscapes of different levels of ecological conditions on a scale of at least 1:25000 with the regimes of their use should become the basis of soil protection systems (Burlakova, Kudryavtsev, Konontseva, 2003). 1. Bivalkevich V.I., Polyakov Yu.A., Pudovkina T.A. Land Fund of the Altai Territory. Barnaul, 2004. 32 p. 2. Burlakova L.M., Pudovkina T.A. Soils. Land resources // Encyclopedia of the Altai Territory. Barnaul, 1995. T. 1. P. 53-57. 3. Burlakova L.M. Conceptual provisions for the rational use of land // Ecology and life safety humans in Siberian conditions. Barnaul: MANEB, 1997. pp. 34-38. 4. Burlakova L.M. Land degradation and desertification // Reclamation and water management. 2005. No. 1. P. 6-9. 5. Burlakova L.M., Morkovkin G.G. Current state of fertility of chernozems of the Altai Territory and the problem of their rational use // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Sci. 2003. No. 5. P. 49-50. 6. Burlakova L.M., Morkovkin G.G. Anthropogenic transformation of soil formation and fertility of chernozems in the system of agrocenoses // Agrochemical Bulletin. 2005. No. 1. P. 2-4. 7. Burlakova L.M., Kudryavtsev A.E., Konontseva E.V. Ecological state of soils in arable lands of the high Altai Ob region and modes of their use // Modern problems and achievements of agricultural science in animal husbandry and crop production: Yubil. international conf. Barnaul, 2003. Part II. pp. 35-39. 8. Dokuchaev V.V. On the issue of Siberian chernozem // Dokuchaev V.V. Selected works. M., 1954. S. 187-207. 9. Ignatovich A.I. Lessons from virgin soil: experience in combating wind erosion and drought in the Kulunda steppe. Barnaul, 2004. 449 p. 10. Pudovkina T.A. Monitoring of lands in the areas of drainage systems of the Altai Territory // Problems of preventing land degradation in Western Siberia and implementing state control over their use and protection. Barnaul, 1997. UDC 651.58 (571.15) N.V. YASHUTIN FLEXIBLE HIGH TECHNOLOGIES FOR CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS. PILOT MODULAR PROJECT In the magazine “My Altai: Village and City” No. 18, August 19, 2004, our article discusses the main prerequisites, directions and methods of biologization of agriculture and minimizing soil tillage in modern conditions. Journal No. 4, dated April 28, 2005, describes the features and evaluates the results of production agricultural testing of flexible knowledge-intensive technologies for cultivating field crops. This article intends to continue the topic and discuss, in particular, new approaches to the formation of crop rotations, technologies for cultivating crops in them, and also propose some of the most Combined with the favorable climate of the south of Western Siberia and the rich historical and cultural heritage, there are all the prerequisites for the development of various types of tourism and sports and entertainment recreation in Barnaul. The Altai Territory is a leader in the Russian Federation in the cultivation and harvesting of grain crops, buckwheat, and sugar beets, which is an important factor for the development of enterprises in Barnaul related to the processing of these crops and the production of agricultural machinery and equipment.

Water resources

Urban district – the city of Barnaul, Altai Territory, is the largest consumer of groundwater in the Altai Territory. The total groundwater withdrawal reaches 71,4 thousand. m3/day, although the main part of the city’s water supply is produced from water from surface water sources. The surface waters of the urban district – the city of Barnaul, Altai Territory – are the majestic Siberian River Ob with its left tributary Barnaulka and small rivers. The area of ​​the Ob basin is 2 million 990 thousand km². According to this indicator, the river ranks first in Russia. The Ob is also the third most water-bearing river in Russia (after the Yenisei and Lena). Large deposits of natural resources are concentrated within the basin. The Altai Territory has significant deposits of brown coal, salt, polymetals, iron ore, cobalt, nickel, and precious metals. Unique finishing materials are mined here: marble, granite, porphyry, jasper, ocher. Nature is rich in the purest drinking water, healing mud, and mineral springs. In recent years, tourism has been actively developing on the Ob. In summer, the region becomes a Mecca for lovers of fishing, rafting, and kayaking.

Biological resources

The indigenous vegetation is represented by steppe, forest and floodplain-meadow types; cereals and herbs are common here. Useful flora region has 1184 species of plants, among which there are: medicinal – 913 species, melliferous – 379, fodder – 663, ornamental – 400, food – 228, vitamin-rich – 42, dyeing – 117, essential oil – 87, tanning – 58, poisonous – 135, technical – 79 types. The group of medicinal plants is the largest, of which about 100 species are widely used in official medicine. These are golden root, maral root, red root, peony marin root, Ural licorice, oregano, St. John’s wort, elecampane and others. There are medicinal plants, the cultivation of which is complex and natural reserves are the only source of raw materials: spring adonis, lingonberry, calamus, yellow egg capsule. In Barnaul, honey fairs are held annually in August, where beekeepers of the city and region present their products. The Altai Territory is a leader in the Russian Federation; the region accounts for a third of the arable land of the Siberian Federal District. The Altai Territory ranks 1st in the Russian Federation in terms of the sown area of ​​grain and leguminous crops. In 2020, the grain harvest in weight after processing amounted to 3,9 million tons; the region retained its leading position in the country in terms of production volumes of spring wheat, buckwheat and oats. The Altai Territory is the only region from the Urals to the Far East that grows sugar beets: in 2020, sugar beet production amounted to more than 1,3 million tons. Also, the region has established itself in the top ten regions of the country in terms of production of sunflower oil seeds, and in terms of rapeseed and oil flax it took 2nd place in Russia. In terms of the volume of production of livestock products among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the Altai Territory traditionally occupies a high position (4th place in milk production, 6th place in the production of high-quality beef). In terms of the number of cattle in all categories of farms, the region consistently ranks 4th.

Forest resources and green spaces

The main natural resource of the city of Barnaul is the Barnaul ribbon forest, represented by pine forests in the form of a ribbon on ancient alluvial sands. Specific climatic and soil conditions contributed to the creation of pine plantations of a special type, sharply different in their structure, productivity, renewal processes and other characteristics from plantings growing in other natural zones. Thanks to the presence of unique ribbon forests, the city of Barnaul has great recreational and environmental potential. The length of urban forests from north to south is 35 km, from east to west – 14 km. The area of ​​green spaces within the city limits is 10098 hectares, of which 4063 hectares are the area of ​​urban forests. For the purpose of using, protecting, defending and reproducing forests, it is allowed to create forest infrastructure: forest roads, timber warehouses and other objects, in particular block settlements, boundary lines, block and signposts, forestry signs.

Recreational resources

Combined with the favorable climate of the south of Western Siberia, the rich historical and cultural heritage provides an opportunity for the development of various types of tourism and sports and entertainment recreation in Barnaul. Barnaul is one of the largest centers of the health industry in Siberia, thanks to the unique natural healing resources necessary for the creation and development of sanatorium-resort and treatment-and-prophylactic complexes. A striking example of investment in the development of medicine in the city and region is the creation of a medical cluster in the mountainous part of the city.

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