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What stone crowns Anna Ioannovna s crown?

Coronation in Russia – a public ceremonial ritual of enthroning an autocrat. This is a complex rite with a strictly established ceremonial sequence, which consisted of the monarch accepting symbols of power and officially securing his rights to reign. Crown wedding and coronation – these were the most important ceremonies in pre-revolutionary Russia. Traditionally, they took place in Moscow even after it ceased to be the capital. The act of crowning the kingdom symbolized the sacredness of the sovereign’s person as God’s viceroy on earth. This ritual was first introduced in Rus’ by Ivan III. This ruler, who freed the state from Mongolian dependence and united the lands around Moscow, needed a new, more prestigious status. The modest ceremonies that were previously performed by Russian princes did not suit him. The ceremony of initiation into the supreme “auto-rulers” was borrowed from Byzantium. On Russian soil it underwent a number of changes. A distinctive feature of the crowning of the kingdom was the combination of secular and church rituals characteristic of the court ceremony; the ascension to the kingdom of the new ruler was accompanied by folk festivities. The traditions of royal weddings, which were established under the Rurikovichs, practically did not change and with the advent of the new Romanov dynasty, they remained in their main features until the end of the 17th century. Already at the beginning of the 18th century, this complex ritual underwent a number of serious changes. After his triumph in the Northern War, Peter I takes the title of Emperor in the Trinity Cathedral of St. Petersburg. The crowning of the kingdom was replaced by a coronation. Peter the Great, with his characteristic desire for change, goes further: for the first time in the history of Russia, a ruler crowned his wife Catherine the First. Since then, their wives have always been present at the coronations of royal spouses. The strengthening of imperial power in all spheres of Russian society and the active development of book publishing led to the emergence of a whole complex of coronation publications, which were published by government agencies in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Such albums were usually released in limited editions. It was customary to give them to members of the Russian imperial family, as well as members of the ruling dynasties of powers friendly to the Russian Empire. In this regard, some copies of the album were published in foreign languages. The entire ceremony of the sacred coronation was designed to amaze representatives of foreign powers and deputations with luxury and splendor; the richness of the design of the coronation album served the same purpose. The most famous artists, engravers and typographers of their time worked on the creation of these publications and illustrations for them. One of the first luxuriously illustrated coronation albums was “Description of the coronation of Her Majesty the Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, Anna Ioannovna, solemnly sent to the reigning city of Moscow, April 28, 1730“(Moscow, 1730). Anna Ioannovna (1693 – 1740), Russian empress from the Romanov dynasty (niece of Peter I, daughter of his brother and co-ruler Tsar Ivan Alekseevich). Ruled Russia from 1730 to 1740. On February 15, 1730, Anna Ioannovna entered Moscow, and on April 28 she was solemnly crowned in the Assumption Cathedral. The coronation of the empress amazed contemporaries with its grandiose pomp, although preparations for it were carried out in an extremely short time. “Description of the coronation of Her Majesty the Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, Anna Ioannovna, solemnly sent to the reigning city of Moscow, April 28, 1730” was published in two languages. The Russian edition is dated 1730, printed in Moscow in the Senate printing house, has a frontispiece – an imperial portrait and 14 (sometimes 15) sheets of illustrations. The German edition, dated 1731 and printed in St. Petersburg, added two engraved headpieces. Work on the Russian edition lasted about six months; the book was published at the end of October 1730. Compared to the description of the coronation of Catherine I, prepared by a person with obvious literary talent, the collection dedicated to Anna Ioannovna was noticeably inferior in the beauty of style and completeness of information. Its contents are more reminiscent of an official report on the ceremonies and celebrations that took place. But “Description of the Coronation of Anna Ioannovna” is difficult to overestimate from the point of view of the prepared illustrations. The coronation in the Assumption Cathedral, the dinner in the Chamber of Facets, the fireworks that accompanied the festive celebrations and much, much more are captured here. The preparation of the publication was entrusted to the outstanding scientist and statesman V. N. Tatishchev (1686-1750) and not by chance. During the coronation itself, Tatishchev, being in the rank of state councilor, served as chief master of ceremonies. He knew in detail all the details of the ceremony that took place (the stages of the coronation, the location of the action, the participants in the processions, the location of the people, the appearance of the coronation regalia, etc.). He was also well acquainted with the text of the description of the ceremony submitted to the Senate, containing references to the corresponding illustrations that needed to be prepared. By personal decree of Anna Ioannovna, it was decided to print the text of the “Description of the Coronation” in Russian in Moscow, and engrave the drawings in St. Petersburg at the Academy of Sciences. At that time, the Academy of Sciences operated the largest printing house in Russia, capable of printing any publication not only in Russian, but also in many foreign languages. Skilled engravers worked in the academic art workshops (the master of the portrait genre – H. A. Wortman, the engraver of prospectuses O. Elliger, the engraver of letters and maps – G. I. Unferzagt), as well as famous artists, around whom a circle of talented students gradually formed. Thus, the Academy had all the necessary conditions for the preparation of engraved illustrations. The work on preparing the engravings was supervised by I. D. Schumacher (1690 – 1761), a figure in Russian science, secretary of the medical office, director of the St. Petersburg Library of the Academy of Sciences. The archives preserve quite detailed correspondence between Tatishchev and Schumacher, which contains information about the constant difficulties that arose in the process of working on the publication, but all these difficulties were overcome. The book is formatted. The title page of the publication is quite simple, although the font is very thin and decorative. The title consists of seven lines with the main words well highlighted – “Description of the coronation. of Anna Ioannovna” Most lines end with commas. The frontispiece of the publication was decorated with a wonderful portrait of the Empress, engraved by H. A. Wortman from the original by L. Caravaque. The Empress is depicted against the backdrop of the palace interior in a classic ceremonial pose: full-length, in a magnificent ceremonial dress and crown, with a robe with a train draped over her shoulders. In her right hand she holds a scepter, with her left she touches the orb lying on a pillow on the table. The history of the creation of the frontispiece is interesting. The first version of the portrait by O. Elliger did not satisfy the empress, since it turned out to be “not at all similar” and was replaced by another, engraved with a chisel and dotted line by H.A. Wortman from the original by L. Caravaca. On the first pages of the document, the Manifesto of March 16, 1730 was published on the establishment of the coronation day and on detailed preparations for it. Inside the album, special attention is attracted by large, folding illustrations: the solemn procession to the Assumption Cathedral and the coronation. It is interesting that where the figures are small enough, the empress is clearly visible; she seems to be highlighted among the many people around her. The images of the participants in the celebration, located in the square and in the cathedral, are indicated by numbers, and below are their names and titles. One of the engravings in the album shows the crown of Anna Ioannovna. The engraver’s skill allowed him to convey the shine of a huge number of precious stones with just black strokes. The album is a true masterpiece of Russian book art of the 18th century. According to the famous bibliographer and antiquarian N.S. Solovyova “”Description of the Coronation of Empress Anna Ioannovna” in terms of the richness of illustrations and their quality can be ranked alongside the best foreign publications of this kind». It is estimated that the publication had a circulation of 1200 copies, 50 of which included hand-colored engravings. This tome is also important as the ancestor of illustrated coronation collections, the tradition of publishing which ended only with the Russian Empire. Today, ceremonial albums are book monuments of national significance. The historical and cultural value of coronation albums is, first of all, due to the enormous significance that the act of coronation had for Russian government and society, as well as their undeniable artistic merits. Nowadays, coronation publications are a great bibliographic rarity. The collections of the Don State Public Library contain two copies of “Description of the Coronation of Empress Anna Ioannovna,” one of which is incomplete (some illustrations are missing, including the frontispiece). On the free endpaper of another copy there is an owner’s note in ink “Ex libris of Archpriest Shpakovsky 1892.” Both documents are in composite bindings: leather spine and corner binding covers and paper binding covers. Typically, crowns were made individually for each emperor and then dismantled. But the crowns from this list of regalia have survived to this day – they can be seen in museums. Before Peter I, the main royal regalia was the so-called cap. The most famous of them, the Monomakh Cap, is kept in the Moscow Kremlin. Then they even said not “to crown”, but “to crown the kingdom.” Peter I revised the old traditions and borrowed some rituals from Western monarchies. He performed the first coronation ceremony with his wife, the future Empress Catherine I. Her crown, by the way, was then dismantled (although now its frame, the rim, remains in the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin). The crowns of Peter II and Elizabeth Petrovna were also dismantled. But the crown of Catherine II escaped this fate. Moreover, it was in it that all subsequent Romanovs were crowned. In addition to the large crown, the rulers had small ones for special ceremonies. Some of the imperial regalia have survived to this day.

1. Large Imperial Crown

Great Imperial Crown, engraving This is the most famous crown of the Russian Empire, created for the coronation of Empress Catherine II in 1762. It is decorated with almost 5 thousand diamonds, 75 natural Indian pearls and a huge spinel. The frame is made of silver. In addition to the coronation process itself, it was also worn at ceremonies. The last time it was worn by Nicholas II was at the opening of the State Duma in 1906. Stefano Torelli. Portrait of Empress Catherine II (between 1763 and 1766) The crown is kept in the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin along with other main imperial regalia – the scepter and the orb. You can see the original only in Moscow – it is never taken out of the museum. For exhibitions in other places, including abroad, a copy of it was created in 2012, albeit made of white gold, Australian pearls and rubellite. The diamonds used were Yakut – about 11 thousand stones.

2. Small Imperial Crown

Small Imperial Crown The small crown was placed on the head of the wife or consort of the reigning emperor during the coronation. The tradition appeared after Catherine II, and such a crown was considered private property and could be inherited. Most often, the small crown was dismantled and a new decoration was made. Only this small crown has survived to this day: expert opinions are divided regarding its owner – some historians believe that it was made in 1801 for the wife of Alexander I Elizaveta Alekseevna, others that in 1856 for the wife of Alexander II Maria Alexandrovna. Mikhail Zichy. Coronation of Alexander II in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin on August 26, 1856 It is much smaller, but similar in shape to the larger one and is also made of silver and richly decorated. It contains 48 large and 200 small (by royal standards) diamonds. Now the small crown is also kept in the Armory. It is interesting that after the revolution of 1917, when jewelers compiled an inventory of the royal treasures, there was another small crown on the list. Nothing is known about her. Most likely, it was dismantled and sold at one of the European auctions.

3. Wedding crown

The wedding crown of the Romanovs is now in a museum in Washington A small, elegant crown of velvet studded with diamonds was part of the wedding dress. Elizaveta Feodorovna, the sister of the last Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, got married in it in 1884, and then other women of the Romanov dynasty wore it. Apparently, they did not dismantle the crown, since at the end of the 19th century several weddings of the Grand Dukes took place. In addition to the crown, the bride also wore a tiara with a pink diamond and cherry earrings. It all weighed a lot. And these were not the only decorations. Wedding in the Court Cathedral of the Winter Palace of Grand Duchess Elizabeth with Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, 1884 Public Domain; New York Public Library Jewelers after the revolution did not consider this crown particularly valuable and sold it to the antique dealer Norman Weiss in 1926. Then she appeared several times at auctions, adorning the heads of Cartier models and even beauty pageant winners. In 1966, it was bought by Marjorie Post, a collector of Russian art. The crown is now kept in the Hillwood Museum near Washington, which Marjorie created.

4. Crown of Anna Ioannovna

Crown of Anna Ioannovna Moscow Kremlin Museums The niece of Peter I reigned from 1730 to 1740 and was famous for her love of luxury. For her coronation they created this huge silver crown with gilding. It is decorated with 2500 diamonds and rubies. They were partially taken from the crown of Catherine I, as was the largest tourmaline stone in it. Initially, there were also about a hundred pearls on the crown, but according to the inventory made after the death of the empress, they disappeared. Louis Caravaque. Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna Why the crown was not dismantled after the ceremony is not entirely clear. However, it is known that it was also used for the coronation of Emperor Nicholas I in Warsaw, the capital of the Kingdom of Poland in 1829, which was part of the Russian Empire after the Napoleonic War. After this ceremony, the crown entered the Armory Chamber, where it is kept to this day.

5. Maltese crown

Maltese crown of Paul I Shakko/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 3.0) Emperor Paul I in 1798 took the title of Grand Master of the Order of Malta, the oldest order of chivalry in the world, which to this day positions itself as a state. Grand Master is the head of the order, the highest position. Why did it go to the Russian emperor, and even one baptized in Orthodoxy? The fact is that in 1798 Napoleon captured Malta, and the knights of the order turned to Paul I with a request to lead the order and provide them with refuge. The Emperor agreed and even added the Maltese crown to the coat of arms of the Russian Empire. Vladimir Borovikovsky. Portrait of Paul I Museum of the Academy of Arts It is not known for certain who the author of this crown of the Grand Master was: according to some sources, these were court jewelers, according to others, they were Maltese. The crown is made of gilded silver in the shape of arches supporting an apple with a Maltese cross. Paul I’s successor, Alexander I, resigned as grand master and removed the Maltese crown from the coat of arms, but the knights continued to live in Russia until 1834, when they established headquarters in Rome. Since 1827, the crown has been kept in the Armory. By the way, the coat of arms of the city of Gatchina near St. Petersburg still depicts the Maltese crown (the Priory Palace, the seat of the order, is also located here).

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