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Which diamond is kept in the Russian Diamond Fund?

It is known that jewelry, necessary to determine social status, is useless from a practical point of view in everyday life. Nevertheless, they continue to attract the attention of people throughout the existence of human civilization. Jewelry tends to be “attracted” and collected by people. One of these ancient collections is the Diamond Fund, located on the territory of the Kremlin. To see all this beauty, many people from all over the world come to the capital, renting apartments for daily rent in Moscow. The Diamond Fund presents works by jewelers, rare precious stones, nuggets of precious metals, Ural gems, imperial regalia and ancient orders. The fund was created by Peter I. In those days, order insignia, state regalia and ceremonial jewelry were kept there. It was replenished both during the reign of the House of Romanov and in Soviet times. The first exhibition of the Diamond Fund in the Moscow Kremlin opened on November 2, 1967. Initially it was planned that the exhibition would run for one year. Due to its great popularity, the Soviet government decided to transform the temporary exhibition into a permanent exhibition. This exhibition occupies two halls on the lower floor of the Kremlin Armory and begins with display cases filled with natural diamonds that arrived here after the discovery of the Yakut diamond deposits in 1967. The second hall houses the “historical” collection of the Diamond Fund. Here you can see the main value of the treasury – the Great Imperial Crown – the most expensive crown in the world. The crown belonged to Catherine II the Great and consists of two silver hemispheres, which are separated by a “laurel” garland. In addition to various diamonds and pearls, the crown is decorated with a giant ruby ​​weighing 398,72 carats. This ruby ​​is one of the seven most important historical stones of the fund. The “Big Bouquet” served as decoration for the bodice of the imperial ceremonial dress. He first decorated the toilet of Empress Catherine II in 1760. The bouquet is made of emeralds and diamonds. Multicolored foil is placed under the diamonds, which gives a multicolor effect. The only 15-carat diamond has a natural lilac-pink color. The Diamond Fund’s “historical” collection of stones also included an absolutely flat diamond, weighing 25 carats. It adorns a gold bracelet made in the XNUMXth century in the Gothic style. This stone is an example of “portrait stones”. Colored miniatures were often placed under these. In this case, the miniature shows an image of Emperor Alexander I. The Shah diamond is another world-famous stone that is included in this collection. It is transparent and has a slight yellowish tint, weighing 88,70 carats. This one of the oldest Indian diamonds has engraved signatures. Based on them, the history of this stone was restored. It is known that the Shah diamond was used as a talisman. In 1829, the Persian prince brought him to St. Petersburg as “compensation” for the murder of the Russian ambassador in Tehran. The legendary “Count Orlov” diamond, with a bluish tint and weighing 189,62 carats, is also contained in the Diamond Fund’s reserves. It adorns the golden imperial scepter. The “Great Seven” of the foundation’s stones also includes the famous Ceylon blue sapphire weighing 258,18 carats, which was found in the XNUMXth century. Sapphire is a component of a diamond brooch. The Diamond Fund has the world’s largest peridot, olive green in color and weighing 192,60 carats. Most modern jewelry is made specifically for the exhibition at the Diamond Fund. Among them: a platinum brooch from 1974, made by jewelers of Gokhran (State Repository of Valuables) G. F. Aleksakhin and V. V. Nikolaev. According to the author’s plan, the central role is assigned to a beautiful black diamond weighing 17,97 carats. The 1987 Russian Beauty tiara uses the kokoshnik motif, an ancient women’s headdress. To create this work of art, Gokhran jewelers G. F. Aleksakhin, V. V. Nikolaev and V. G. Sitnikov needed 25 pearls and 1 diamonds. The Gokhran of Russia houses many diverse collections of diamond nuggets and precious metals. Also on display are some very interesting shaped gold nuggets. There are such unusual creations of nature as, for example, “Hare Ears”, found in the Urals in 1935, “Mephistopheles” – found in Kolyma in 1944. The “Big Triangle”, found in the Urals in 1842, is the largest nugget in Russia. There is a unique specimen in the group of platinum nuggets, weighing almost 8 kilograms. Doesn’t it make you want to see with your own eyes all of the above-mentioned splendor? Yes, by the way, the Diamond Fund is open from 10-00 to 12-30 and from 14-00 to
16-30, day off – Thursday, closed on holidays. The website will help solve the issue of renting apartments by the day in Moscow. The main thing is to choose an apartment for a day in advance and in a calm home environment. Most of the imperial treasures after the Revolution were taken abroad or sold at auction, but some works of jewelry can also be seen in Moscow. There is no exact data on how large the Romanov family’s jewelry box was; only part of the jewelry that fell into the hands of the Bolsheviks after the 1917 Revolution is known. This did not happen right away. In normal times, the royal treasures were kept in the diamond room of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, but during World War I, the Romanov crown jewels were sent to the Kremlin Armory for safekeeping. There they lay until 1922, littered with other boxes, until the Bolsheviks discovered them. The young country needed money, so it was decided to sell the jewelry abroad, leaving only the most valuable things in Russia and turning them into museum exhibits. Among these jewels you can see elegant brooches from the time of Catherine II, an extremely rare “portrait” diamond and a single Romanov diadem.

1. Brooch and earrings of Elizaveta Petrovna “Fountain”

Egret with sapphires in the form of a fountain from the treasury of the Diamond Fund of the Russian Federation. Elizaveta Petrovna (1709-1761), daughter of Peter I, simply adored brooches, ordering jewelry of completely different types and styles for herself. This decoration in the form of a fountain of sapphires with diamond drops is called an aigrette. It is worn on a hat or as a hair clip. The aigrette set consisted of massive earrings – “fountains”. The “fountains” looked especially impressive when moving.

2. Brooches “Big Bouquet” and “Small Bouquet”

Brooches “Big Bouquet” and “Small Bouquet”. And Elizaveta Petrovna wore these decorations on her formal dress. At that time, in jewelry art, multi-colored foil plates were placed under precious stones to give the desired shade. And here the idea of ​​the court master Jeremiah Pozier is clearly visible! Brazilian diamonds and Colombian emeralds form the precious flowers of iris, narcissus and forget-me-nots. In the center of the “big bouquet” is a rare lilac diamond of 15,5 carats. The smaller “small bouquet” consists of diamond flowers and leaves of gold and dark green enamel.

3. Diamond agraph buckle

The agraph buckle belonged to Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. Silver, diamonds. Around 1750. Vladimir Vdovin/Sputnik; Tretyakov Gallery An agraph is a brooch-shaped clasp, a popular decoration in the 25th century. Elizaveta Petrovna wore this huge diamond buckle in the form of a bow on her ermine robe. The dimensions are impressive: its length is 11 cm, width is 805 cm. The agraph is decorated with XNUMX diamonds of different shapes and cuts. Almost all of her descendants wore this decoration.

4. Pendant of Catherine II “Caesar’s Ruby”

This large crimson-colored stone is called rubellite. This is a rare variety of dark pink tourmaline, long considered a ruby ​​(examination was carried out already in Soviet times). The stone was presented to Catherine the Great (1729-1796) as a gift in 1777 by King Gustav III of Sweden in honor of the 15th anniversary of her reign, telling her the legend that it was given to Caesar by Cleopatra. Later it became known that the stone came to Europe from Burma in the 16th century, but still at that time it was considered the largest ruby ​​in Europe. Catherine did not want to spoil it with cutting, and the court jewelers simply polished it and decorated it with enamel leaves. The result is simply a magnificent pendant.

5. Diamond slavage bow and girandole earrings of Catherine II

Slavage bow and pendants. Made in 1764. Light colored spinels on foil, mounted in gold, surrounded by a frame of sparkling diamonds. The pendant earrings each consist of nine light spinels on foil, framed with Brazilian diamonds. Slavage is a piece of jewelry worn on a wide lace or velvet ribbon like a necklace. This bow was made for Catherine II according to the latest fashion of those years. It is decorated with a scattering of diamonds and spinels – rare minerals of red and pink shades. They are paired with massive girandole earrings (as earrings in the shape of candelabra are called). The stones here look very bright due to the same technique with foil. In fact, their natural color is much more subtle. On the back of the bow is the jeweler’s engraving: Pfisterer 10 Apr. 1764, and the earrings are dated May 27 of the same year. The last owner of this set was Empress Maria Feodorovna (1847-1928), wife of Alexander III. The jewelry was found in her chambers in the Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg (she herself managed to leave Russia after the Revolution).

6. Wedding diadem of the Romanovs

Tiara with pink diamond and Princess Elizabeth in her wedding dress, wedding crown and tiara, 1884. Diamond Fund in the Moscow Kremlin; New York Public Library The stunningly beautiful diadem of Empress Maria Feodorovna (1759-1828), wife of Paul I, was made at the beginning of the 19th century in the form of a kokoshnik with a huge pink diamond. At that time, kokoshnik tiaras were incredibly popular, not only in Russia, but also abroad (European monarchs still wear them). In total, the tiara is decorated with 175 large Indian diamonds and more than 1200 small round-cut diamonds. This decoration was traditionally part of the wedding costume of royal brides. And this is the only original Romanov diadem that remained in Russia – art critics considered the pink diamond to be foamless.

7. Cherry earrings

Such cherry earrings were part of the Romanovs’ wedding attire. Legion Media; Gokhran of Russia These diamond earrings, created for Catherine II, along with Maria Feodorovna’s tiara, made up the wedding attire of girls from the imperial family. “The earrings weighed on my ears so much that in the middle of the banquet I took them off and, greatly amusing the emperor, hung them on the edge of the glass of water standing in front of me,” this is how Maria Pavlovna (1890-1958) recalled her wedding day.

8. Brooch with emerald “Green Queen”

Diamond brooch with a square Colombian emerald of dark green color (2nd quarter of the 19th century) from the Diamond Fund of the Russian Federation and its owner, Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna. Sputnik; Royal Collection The 136-carat emerald called “Green Queen” is considered one of the most valuable exhibits of the Diamond Fund. According to expert estimates, it was found in the 16th century in Colombia, and placed in a frame of small and large diamonds of various shapes in the mid-1830th century. The owner of this jewel was Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna (1911-XNUMX), wife of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich (younger brother of Emperor Alexander II).

9. Brooch with Ceylon sapphire

The cornflower blue sapphire from Sri Lanka is one of seven world-famous historical stones, kept in the Diamond Fund of Russia. Empress Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880), wife of Alexander II, had amazing jewelry. One of them is stored in Russia. This is a brooch with a unique oval Ceylon sapphire of 260,37 carats surrounded by a scattering of diamonds. Alexander II purchased this stone at an exhibition in London and gave it to his wife, and later jewelers inserted it into a brooch.

10. Bracelet with portrait diamond

Gold bracelet with flat diamond. This portrait shows Maria Alexandrovna in a Russian dress and such bracelets. Yuri Somov/Sputnik; Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts The Diamond Fund contains an unusual gold bracelet from the 1777th century with a very rare Indian-cut diamond – the largest of all known. Such diamonds are called portrait diamonds, since colored miniatures were usually placed under them – in this case, a portrait of Emperor Alexander I (1825-XNUMX).

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