Tips for stone care

Which variety of pomegranate is the most expensive?

Garnets are a group of minerals with the same structure but different chemical composition. Due to differences in composition, the properties of the stone may also differ. For example, we can observe a variety of colors of the mineral: red, orange, yellow, brown, green, yellowish-green, pink, colorless, black, with a color changing effect. The name of the mineral comes from the Latin “granatum” – pomegranate fruit, due to the similarity of the shape and color of the crystals with the grains of the fruit. It is worth noting the physical properties of the stone: in addition to the variety of colors, its high hardness, excellent luster and strong dispersion.

Varieties of garnet stone

Let’s consider the properties and characteristics (descriptions) of garnets of various varieties. Depending on the chemical composition, two subgroups are distinguished in the mineral group: pyralspites (mineral species: pyrope, almandine, spessartine); and ugrandites (mineral species: uvarovite, grossular and andradite). The composition may also be intermediate between its mineral species. Below are descriptions of the varieties of garnet stone, indicating the characteristic color palette for each type.

pyrope

Pyrope garnet color: fiery red to dark red, sometimes brownish red. The name of the mineral comes from the Greek. “pyropos” – fire-like. Pyropes are garnets that are usually round grains rather than crystals. In jewelry it is usually represented by small dark-colored stones. The cost of the pyrope mineral is a few tens of dollars per carat. Go to the pyrope encyclopedia

Almandine

Almandine is the most common type. Almandine color description: red with a violet tint, less often deep red and dark brown. The name of the mineral is associated with the city of Alabanda in Asia Minor. Almandine is an inexpensive stone, costing tens of dollars per carat. Good quality stones are valued more than pyrope. Go to almandine encyclopedia

Rhodolite

Rhodolite is a commercial variety of garnet, intermediate in composition between pyrope and almandine. The name comes from the Greek rhodos (rose) and litos (stone). Characteristics of the color of rhodolite: from pink to pinkish-red, violet-red. The cost of rhodolite usually does not exceed $250 per carat, but occasionally there are very bright specimens costing more than $1000 per carat. Go to the rhodolite encyclopedia

Spessartine

Spessartine is less common than pyrope, almandine and rhodolite. Description of the color of spessartine garnet: orange, orange-red, brown-red, yellow. The name of this stone is given in honor of the Spessart mountains in Germany, where it was first discovered. High quality spessartine can cost over $1000 per carat. Go to the spessartine encyclopedia

Malaya

The most valuable variety of garnets, with a composition intermediate between pyrope and spessartine, is the Malaya stone, which is pinkish-orange, reddish-orange or yellowish-orange in color. Sometimes Malaya can have a color changing effect. This is a very rare stone.

Uvarovite

Uvarovite is a bright green stone. Presented in the form of brushes made of small opaque crystals (usually up to 2-3 mm). Uvarovite garnet is named after the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Count S.S. Uvarov (1786-1855), a collector of minerals. The main deposit of uvarovite is the Saranovskoe deposit in the Urals. In Finland there are uvarovites of larger size: there are descriptions of uvarovite of average characteristics with a crystal size of more than 1 cm in diameter.

Grossular

Grossular is a type of garnet, its classic color is green. From Latin “grossularium” means “gooseberry”. The color characteristic of grossulars can be green, yellowish-green, orange, yellow, pink, colorless. The cost of green grossulars, for example, tsavorite and mint garnet, can reach several thousand dollars per carat.

Tsavorite (tsavorite)

Tsavorite is a rich green garnet, a type of grossular. Tsavorites got their name in honor of the place where they were first found – Tsavo National Park in Kenya. The color of tsavorite is similar to emerald, but in terms of rarity, tsavorites exceed emeralds by about 300 times. Tsavorite is one of the most expensive garnets; its cost can be measured in thousands of dollars per carat. Go to the tsavorite encyclopedia

mint pomegranate

In the trade, mint pomegranates can be called grossulars because of their characteristic light green and yellowish-green color. Sometimes such garnets are sold under the name “tsavorite”; there is no clear distinction between these varieties.

Hessonite

Hessonite is a variety of grossular garnet that is orange, yellow-brown, orange-red, and brownish-red in color. The name of the stone comes from the Greek word “esson” – smaller. This is due to the fact that it was originally considered hyacinth (a type of zircon), only with less hardness. Hessonite stone usually costs no more than $250 per carat.

Andradite

  1. Andradite, which has a red-brown color, is the most common. Rarely used in jewelry.
  2. Topazolite is a stone of yellow, yellowish-brown color. It is usually found in deposits together with another variety of andradite – demantoid.
  3. Demantoid is a very rare and most expensive variety of garnet. The name of the stone “demantoid” can be translated as “diamond-like”. The comparison with diamond is due to the fact that the play of color flashes in faceted demantoid is even more pronounced than in diamonds, since the value of the dispersion property of a demantoid (0,057) is higher than that of a diamond (0,042). The color of demantoid garnet is green, often with yellowish or brownish tints, rarely with a blue tint. Demantoids were first found in the mid-19th century in Russia, in the Urals. The price of large, high-quality Ural demantoid stones on the world market can exceed $10000 per carat. The demantoid from the Urals is characterized by fine-fibrous inclusions of bissolite – the so-called “horsetail”. Go to the demantoid encyclopedia

The most valuable garnets are demantoid, tsavorite and spessartine. Garnets with the property of changing color are also highly valued. Their value can exceed $1000 per carat. Our company will help you identify a stone – please contact us.

Caring for pomegranate is easy. For washing, use a mild soapy warm solution; for cleaning, use a soft cloth or brush. The mineral does not like falls or sudden changes in temperature, as this leads to the formation of internal cracks. A soft cloth helps get rid of excess moisture. After washing, gems must be rinsed well with running water. It is not recommended to clean grenades with ultrasound; this can have a detrimental effect on its condition. You should also avoid contact with detergents and chemicals, especially acids or bleaches.

Despite its great hardness, the mineral should not be subjected to high overloads. When doing housework or intensive activities, jewelry is removed so as not to cause mechanical or chemical damage to it. When cleaning, gems should not be removed from the frame – this will prevent loosening of the fastening teeth and prevent the loss of stones. Jewelry is stored separately from other stones, wrapped in soft cloth or a case.

How to distinguish from fakes

The natural mineral has the following characteristics:

  • Presence of foreign inclusions. Small inclusions, specks, cracks indicate the formation of the stone in its natural environment.
  • Natural garnet can leave scratches on glass or mirror surfaces. If no traces remain when exposed to the test sample, the sample is a fake.

Place of Birth

Pyropes were previously mined in Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. Mining is also carried out in South Africa and the USA. Almandine of jewelry quality is found in India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Brazil, the USA, and Pakistan. Rhodolite is mainly mined in Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Madagascar. Deposits of spessartine are known in Namibia, Nigeria and Mozambique. Spessartine is also mined in small quantities in Brazil, Myanmar, Madagascar, Tanzania, Sri Lanka and the USA. Malaya stone is mined in Kenya and Tanzania. Grossular deposits are known in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Italy, Finland and Azerbaijan. Tsavorite stone is mined in Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar. Hessonite is mined in Tanzania, in placers of Sri Lanka and India, Madagascar, Mexico, Canada, and is also mined in a number of deposits in the USA. Uvarovite is mined in Russia, the Urals, Finland, Kazakhstan and South Africa. Topazolites are mined in the Urals, Italy, USA (New Jersey). In addition to the Urals, jewelry-quality demantoids come to the world market mainly only from Namibia and Madagascar. Demantoids are also found in small quantities in Iran, Pakistan and Italy.

CHARACTERISTICS

Mineral type: pyrope, almandine, spessartine, uvarovite, grossular, andradite

Chemical formula: A 3 B 2 [SiO 4 ] 3, where in pyralspites B=Al, A=Mg, Fe, Mn, and in ugrandites A=Ca, B=Fe, Cr, Al

Optical character: isotropic

Cleavage: very imperfect

Density: 3,62-4,20 g/cm 3

Gloss: from glass to diamond

Refractive index: 1,714 to 1,895

Dispersion: 0,022 to 0,057

Color: red, orange, green, color changing effect and other colors

INTERESTING FACTS

  • Demantoid and tsavorite are the most expensive varieties of the mineral; their cost can exceed $10000 per carat.
  • Color-changing garnets can be an excellent alternative to the more expensive alexandrites.
  • Previously considered to be characteristic only of Ural demantoids, inclusions of bisolite of the “horsetail” type were also found, for example, in demantoids from Pakistan, Iran and Italy.
  • In Persia, garnet was considered a royal stone, since craftsmen carved portraits of the country’s rulers on large specimens.
  • Catherine II especially loved jewelry with garnets.
  • A. Kuprin’s work “Garnet Bracelet” played a role in popularizing the stone, although the author was inspired to write the story by a piece of jewelry inlaid not with red, but with original green garnets.

History

Garnets were known for 8 centuries BC. Almandine is mentioned in the works of Pliny the Elder (1st century). Pyropes have been mined in Bohemia (Czech Republic) since the 19th century. Spessartines were first found in the mid-1991th century in the Spessart mountains in Bavaria. Then, to the USA. They began to enter the world trade arena with the discovery of large deposits in Namibia (1999) and Nigeria (1967). Campbell Bridges discovered the first tsavorites in 1974 in Tanzania near the village of Komolo. Later, he discovered a tsavorite deposit on the Tanzania-Kenya border in the area of ​​Tsavo Park. In 19, Tiffany & Co. became interested in tsavorite and later advertised this stone. Demantoids were first found in the mid-1849th century in Russia, in the Urals. The find was then mistaken for chrysolite. And when the Finnish mineralogist Nils Nordenskjöld came to Nizhny Tagil in 1854, he was shown the found samples. His research showed that the mineral is not peridot, but a type of garnet. In XNUMX, he presented the results of his research at a meeting of the Imperial Mineralogical Society, and proposed the name “demantoid” for this stone in honor of its strong diamond-like “game.”

Ennobling

Jewelry varieties of garnet usually do not undergo any types of refining. But demantoids can sometimes be subjected to low-temperature heat treatment to remove the brownish tint characteristic of some samples and “open” a greener color, or to slightly lighten the stone. The elimination of the brownish tint in demantoids during heat treatment is associated with a change in the valence of iron. Heat treatment of demantoid is common for Ural stones, but there is no exact information on stones from Namibia and Madagascar. Demantoids of the Poldnevskoe deposit can be either heated or unheated. Bobrovka (Nizhny Tagil) demantoids are always without heat treatment, their color does not contain a brown tint. Demantoids from the Karkodinskoe deposit are always heat treated; for them this is a standard and necessary procedure. Few gemological laboratories in the world indicate the fact of heat treatment of demantoid in expert opinions. Many foreign market participants began to learn that demantoids can be heated to improve color only recently.

The healing properties of the stone

Pomegranate is widely used by lithotherapists to speed up the healing of cuts, wounds and fractures. The main purpose of the gem is to help stop bleeding. Taking into account the shade, the gem is used in the following directions:

  • Red stones have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, normalize the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system.
  • Green crystals are recommended for combating stress, improving the functioning of the nervous system, normalizing sleep and eliminating insomnia. Minerals have a beneficial effect on the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
  • Transparent pomegranates are used to normalize the functioning of the pancreas and digestion. Help eliminate rashes on the mucous membrane.
  • Instances of yellow and brown shades treat skin diseases – from burns to allergic rashes.

Garnets have the greatest value for women. Lithotherapists use them to improve conditions during pregnancy, reduce menstrual pain, and relieve migraine attacks.

Regardless of the color and type, pomegranate has a positive effect on the functioning of the heart and blood vessels and normalizes blood pressure.

PHOTO grenade

The photo shows a red garnet weighing 11,71 carats (Tanzania)

Traditionally, pomegranate is considered dark scarlet, similar in shade to the grains of the southern sweet and sour fruit (Latin granatus – granular). In reality, garnet jewelry includes several crystalline stones of varying colors, compositions, and visual qualities.

In Rus’, scarlet jewelry stones (garnet, ruby, spinel, tourmaline, etc.) were called lalams in Arabic, and the garnets themselves were called bechet (from Arabic bijazi), as well as worm-shaped yakhonts.

The modern name “garnet” was given to semi-precious crystals by the famous Middle Ages scientist Albert Magnus. He translated “bijazi” into Latin, which was the name for almandine garnets, as granatus – granular, emphasizing the similarity of these crystals with the fruits of the pomegranate tree.

The name “garnet” for dark scarlet jewelry stones was finally established in the 18th century thanks to Abraham Werner, a German professor of geology, who created a system for identifying the mineral according to its external characteristics.

Characteristics of the garnet mineral

First of all, garnet is the name given to several silicate minerals. Their appearance, color and properties depend on the chemical composition, i.e. content of manganese, magnesium, iron, calcium and chromium in silicate. Each garnet is quite hard (up to 7,5 Mohs), but also fragile.

Before jewelry processing, garnet crystals have a rhombic decahedral or tetragon-trioctahedral shape, or combinations thereof. The line drawn on the mineral will be white. Garnets are characterized by a glassy or greasy luster, less often a diamond luster. Among these minerals there are transparent, translucent and opaque types. There is no cleavage in garnets.

These jewelry minerals are based on silicon oxide (SiO4). Their color depends on natural metallic impurities – iron, manganese, aluminum, magnesium, calcium and chromium. Garnets are pyroelectric, capable of attracting, for example, straws and bird down after heating by friction.

Let’s look at the types of pomegranates and their individual characteristics.

Types of pomegranate

Fire pyrope

Due to its dark scarlet (crimson) color, it is called “fire-like” (Greek pyropos). The high hardness and strength of pyrope have made the stone centuries-old popular among jewelers and fans of fire garnet.

Jewelers in some countries make pendants using a simple cut of pyrope, based on its natural facets. Excessively dark crystals are cut on both sides to a concave shape with a decrease in thickness, which makes it possible to increase the light transmission of the stone. Also, rounded cabochons are created from pyropes and plate cutting (flat, concave) is performed.

The main deposits of “fire” pyrope are Russia (Southern Urals, Yakutia), the African continent (Tanzania, Lesotho), South America (Argentina, Brazil), China (Guangdong). The deposits of the historically popular Bohemian garnet in the Central Bohemian Mountains were exhausted back in the 70s of the last century, so Czech jewelers have been cutting and selling South American and African pyropes for more than 30 years.

Cherry almandine

Its other known name, along with ruby, is carbuncle (from the Latin carbunculus – smoldering coal). Almandine colors come in crimson, cherry, black-red, purple and black. The hardness of this stone is close to rubies and is 7,5 Mohs. Jewelers consider colorless (transparent) almandines to be the most valuable.

There are very large almandine crystals, reaching 15 cm in size (the usual size is up to 6 mm). Typically, almandine garnets are cut by jewelers in the classic “saucer” shape, which gives the stone the best transparency.

The stable name for this type of garnet was given by the ancient city of Alabanda from Asia Minor, where jewelers’ workshops were located and from where cut almandines were brought to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Almandine jewelry gems are mined in Russia (Kola Peninsula, Ural, Karelia), Austria (Tyrol), France (eastern Pyrenees, Aveyron, Loire), USA (Idaho, New York, Alaska), India (Rajasthan), in Madagascar (Ampadramike), in Brazil (Minas Gerais), in Sri Lanka (Ratnapura).

Pink rhodolite

Because of its color it is called “rose-like” (Greek rhodon). The purity of this stone along with its pink color contributed to its popularity in jewelry. With a basic pink color, rhodolites have color shades ranging from purple-violet (red grape) to purplish-red.

Rhodolite was isolated as an independent variety of garnet in 1959 at the insistence of Basil Anderson, an American mineralogist and leading expert on precious stones.

Natural crystals of rhodolite are no more than 2 cm in size; large specimens of them are extremely rare. Depending on the quality, these gems are polished to a cabochon shape, or subjected to round cutting, stepped and oval facets, which allows you to use their full shine.

Two centuries ago, the main mining of jewelry rhodolite took place in the USA (S. Carolina), but by the 19th century these deposits had exhausted themselves. Now rhodolite of gem quality is mined in Tanzania and Kenya (Umba River valley), India (Odisha, Rajasthan), Sri Lanka (Ratnapura).

Orange spessartine

As an independent species of garnet, it was first described in 1832 by geologist and mineralogist Francois Bedan. He gave the stone a name in honor of the area where he discovered the gem – the Bavarian midlands of Spessart (Germany).

Spessartines are known for their rich orange-yellow, yellow-brown and red-orange colors. Despite the high prevalence of spessartines, pure jewelry crystals of this type of garnet are rarely found and, usually, their size is less than 4 cm.

In the late 90s, blue spessartine was first discovered in Madagascar, whose color changes depending on the color temperature of the surrounding light – from blue-green to purple. This is the rarest type of garnet.

With the discovery of new deposits in Africa in the 90s, spessartite garnet is used more widely in jewelry than before. Lesser-quality gemstone samples are polished, while high-quality ones are cut. The main deposits of these garnets are located in Namibia (Cunena River), Tanzania (Arusha), Russia (Middle Urals, Karelia), USA (Maine, Colorado), Brazil (Minas Gerais), China (Fujian), Madagascar (Androy).

Green grossular

It is a calcium-aluminum garnet of colorless or golden yellow color. Shades – green and light green, more rarely yellow, pink-red and brownish. The most expensive, bright green variety of grossular is known, called tsavorite.

Based on its main color, it was called by the mineralogist Abraham Werner in 1808 “like a gooseberry” (from the Latin grossularia). Green pomegranate was first discovered in 1790 by Eric Laxman in Yakutia, on the banks of the Vilyuy.

Most “large” grossulars are about 3-4 cm in size (before cutting). Cloudy stones are polished with beads and cabochons; the purest stones are faceted. Rare, high-purity grossular tsavorites are cut like an “emerald” (I-65), they will have a diamond cut (“princess”, “cushion”).

Grossulars are mined in deposits in Russia (Yakutia), Tanzania (Arusha, Ruvuma), Kenya (Tsavo River basin), Madagascar (Vakinankaratra), Canada (Quebec).

Brilliant Demantoid

This is a rare jewelry subspecies of andradite garnet, isolated in 1868 by mineralogist Gustav Nordenskiöld and named by him for the characteristic shine of the crystal “diamond-like” – from him. diamant (diamond) and Greek. είδος (appearance). Until the mid-XNUMXth century, demantoid was considered chrysolite among Ural miners.

The color of the demantoid is bright green and yellow-green. With a relatively low hardness (6,5 Mohs), this gem has the highest indices of light refraction (almost 1,90) and dispersion (0,057) among garnets, by the way, exceeding the dispersion of diamond (0,042).

Particularly valuable are the Ural demantoids, which contain inclusions of bissolite mineral fibers (“cat’s eye”) or the finest hollow channels remaining after the destruction of bissolite fibers (“horse tail”).

The natural shape of demantoid grains is oval and round; their crystals could not be detected. Jewelry-quality specimens larger than 10 mm are practically never found.

High-quality demantoid stones are cut according to diamond patterns (“oval”, “cushion”, “heart”, etc.). Less successful samples are subjected to flat step cutting.

The highest quality demantoid jewelry gems are mined in Russia (Middle Urals). Demantoid mining is also carried out in Iran (Arzuya), Namibia (Damaraland), Italy (Lombardy), and Madagascar (Diana).

Emerald uvarovite

The emerald green variety of garnet was first described by mineralogist Hermann Ivanovich Hess in 1832. The name of the gem – uvarovite – was given in honor of Count Sergei Semenovich Uvarov, who then headed the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The color of uvarovite is green, greenish-black and emerald green. Despite the high hardness (7,5-8 according to Mohs) and the beauty of uvarovite, its individual crystals are not suitable for jewelry work – as a rule, they are too small (less than 3 mm). Therefore, uvarovite is inserted into bracelets, rings and brooches in the form of a fine-grained brush or druse.

The main places of uvarovite production are Russia (Ural), Finland (Outokumpu), Canada (Quebec), South Africa (Bushveld) and the USA (Oregon).

The magic of garnet stone

Ancient cultures endowed the stones of the garnet family with special magical properties and considered garnet gems to be a source of healing powers, passion and vivid emotions. It is in this regard that the dark red, scarlet garnet (carbuncle, anfrax) is mentioned in ancient texts. But green garnet stones patronize business people, developing in their character traits of determination, perseverance and hard work.

According to Navagraha – Indian astrology – the garnet is included in the set of the “nine treasure” (navaratna) necklace, which can have a positive magical effect on the destinies and lives of people wearing this jewelry. In European astrology, garnet is called the stone of January, and in tropical astrology it is called the stone of Aquarius. The ancient Persians considered the garnet stone a talisman that protected against dangerous natural phenomena – lightning, storms.

In the online store rosary.su You can always buy and order quality rosary from pomegranate at the best price.

Photo of garnet stone


Garnet, Italy

Garnet

Garnet, Afghanistan

Pomegranate, China

Garnet, Namibia

Garnet in quartz

Garnet, France

Garnet, USA

Garnet, USA

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