Rare and valuable minerals

Who is not recommended to wear amber?

A stone such as amber has been known to mankind since ancient times. It dates back to the Neolithic era and has more than 300 varieties.

History of origin

It is now already known that amber is a mineral of organic origin, but scientists did not immediately come to this conclusion. At first, there were legends about the origin of the gem. There are many stories around the world that explain the origin of amber. Thus, the ancient Greeks believed that amber were the tears of the mother and sisters of the sun god Phaethon. If you believe the myth, then the women mourning their dead son and brother were turned into poplars by the great gods, and their tears falling into the water turned into amber. · In Sophocles’ tragedy dating back to the 6th century BC, amber was the tears for the hero Meleager, who died due to his mother’s curse. · In the Lithuanian legend of Jurata and Kastitis, the sea goddess cries for her lover with amber tears. · The Baltic epic about the bird Gauja connects the origin of amber with the crime that a cruel ruler pushed his servant to commit. In almost all myths, frozen resin acts as a kind of secret message, the meaning of which each people understands in its own way. · For the first time the version that amber is a fossilized resin was put forward by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder. He noticed that when amber burns, it gives off a specific smell and a smoky flame, and particles of plants and even insects are often found inside transparent samples. · There have been attempts to challenge Pliny’s hypothesis more than once. For example, the naturalist Georg Agricola, who lived in the 16th century, argued that amber is formed from a liquid bituminous substance that forms inside the earth and solidifies when it flows to the surface. · Amber was well known in Ancient Rus’. M. Yu. Lomonosov mentioned the organic origin of the stone in his works. The petrified resin was credited with miraculous properties and was called “latyr-stone” or “alatyr”. The modern scientific name of natural amber, according to international mineralogical terminology, is succinite.

Place of Birth

Experts have found out that the stone is nothing more than the frozen resin of trees, mainly coniferous trees. These trees grew mostly in the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as near coastal areas – within the boundaries of the modern Baltic Sea. The humid, warm climate observed in these parts was favorable for the appearance of lush vegetation. Chestnuts, oaks, broad-leaved lindens, as well as vines, palms, laurel and myrtle trees grew here. Due to climate change, trees began to secrete large amounts of resin, which appeared on the surface of the bark. Under the influence of air, the resin oxidized, hardened and gradually became covered with a dark brown crust. Little by little, resin particles fell into the ground, where they gradually accumulated. Groundwater currents carried hardened resin from the soil, as a result of which it fell into the mouths of large rivers, and they flowed into the ancient sea, located on the territory of the modern Kaliningrad Peninsula. As a result, the Palmniken amber deposit was formed – one of the largest in the world. About 2 years ago, a huge glacier moved earth layers along with amber-bearing deposits to the foot of the Carpathian Mountains. This is how secondary amber deposits appeared, and “sun stones” still continue to be found in places that were previously occupied by the glacier.

Where can you find amber: mining areas

Amber mining sites exist in many countries around the world. Succinite deposits have been discovered in Russia, the Republic of Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, the USA, and Mexico. One of the largest plants for the extraction and processing of gems is located in the Kaliningrad region, on the coast of the Baltic Sea. The village of Yantarny is considered one of the leaders in the world’s amber reserves. Here, thick layers of amber are found at a depth of 50 m. Among the well-known deposits, one can also highlight the North Siberian and Far Eastern deposits.

Physico-chemical properties of amber

· The composition of natural stone includes sulfur, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, as well as acids of organic origin. Impurities may include aluminum, iron, silicon and calcium. · Amber is quite fragile – its density is no more than 2,5–3 points on the Mohs scale. It breaks down a lot when it ages, especially if it is left in the open air. · The color of amber varies from milky white and light yellow to bright red and dark brown. · At a temperature of +150 °C, succinite begins to melt, and when heated above 200 °C, it begins to burn. The stone is easily polished because it does not have a crystal lattice. Amber differs in its degree of transparency and shape. The shape depends on how the resin flowed out – it remained inside the tree or protruded on the surface of the bark. Sometimes there are amber samples in the form of icicles and drops. The size of some of these stones reaches up to 5 cm in diameter, and amber in the form of icicles reaches 10–12 cm. The degree of transparency, color intensity, and how amber looks depends on the number, size and location of microscopic voids inside.

Varieties of amber

· Bastard is a translucent, translucent stone with an accumulation of internal voids, most often of a rich yellow color. It has a heterogeneous structure, as well as small inclusions and cloudiness over the entire surface. · Batter is a completely transparent amber of a yellow or brown hue. · Bone and foam is an opaque stone with many voids, giving it a characteristic porous structure. · Layered amber – consists of numerous thin layers. Difficult to process. · Matte white – selected ivory-colored stone. It has a homogeneous structure and does not crumble during processing. · Royal Yellow is a white matte amber that has changed color when exposed to oxygen and sunlight. Such stones are considered antique because the color transformation process can take more than 20 years. · Landscape – a rare type of amber with a unique surface pattern, reminiscent of the image of natural objects. · Black – a completely opaque stone with frozen particles of bark, algae or clay.

Which amber is most valued

The most valuable types include amber with a bluish-blue tint and transparency of about 90%. Such samples are mined only in the Dominican Republic. These stones originated from the tree resin of Hymenaea Protera. Transparent yellow stones, as well as amber with inclusions—insects and plants frozen inside—are considered especially valuable.

Healing properties of amber

People have long noticed the stone’s ability to treat ailments and have a beneficial effect on the body. It is no coincidence that scientists have repeatedly encountered references to amber in the works of ancient healers. Thus, the eastern healer Ibn Sina, better known under the name Avicenna, spoke about the benefits of petrified resin. The healing qualities of amber are quite extensive: Helps with migraines, normalizes sleep in case of insomnia; · improves brain function, the state of the nervous system, relieves stress; · has a positive effect on the thyroid gland; · strengthens the defenses, as well as the cardiovascular system; · Helps normalize digestion and metabolic processes. Essential oils for external use, tinctures and powders for oral use are made from amber. Amber powder is used to disinfect cuts and added to cosmetic face masks. In addition, stones are worn on the body as jewelry. Amber is included in some medicines, for example, succinic acid tablets. Medicines are prescribed for problems with blood circulation, heart pain, and pathologies of the respiratory system. Used as a sedative for constant stress, increased anxiety and chronic fatigue. The property of succinic acid to remove toxins and disinfect allows the product to be used for intoxication.

Magical properties

Ancient alchemists considered amber powder to be the main ingredient for preparing the elixir of eternal youth. Sunstone has been viewed since ancient times as a symbol of health and longevity. The Slavs wore amber beads to protect themselves from the evil eye. · Dark amber attracts financial well-being and drives away negative emotions. Black stones should be taken with you on the road to make the trip successful. · Bright yellow amber clears thoughts and helps you make the right decisions. In addition, the yellow shades of the stone activate the solar plexus chakra and help in relationships with other people. · Products made from hardened resin are powerful home amulets. They neutralize dark magic and provide the home with reliable protection from negative energy. · Green amber has powerful energy. An amulet made from such a stone protects the owner from failures and brings harmony and tranquility to life. · White amber is considered a symbol of love, fidelity and mercy. Many believe that amber takes away ailments from the owner and also gives determination.

Which zodiac signs are amber suitable for?

“Sunstone” belongs to the element of Fire, so it is best suited for fire signs: Aries, Sagittarius and Leo. Amber gives the owner confidence in his abilities, makes him more reasonable and calm. For Pisces, Scorpios and Cancers, the hardened resin energizes and has a positive effect on intuition and overall well-being. But here it is important to pay attention to what color the amber is – yellow-green and light brown stones are the best choice. For Gemini, Aquarius and Libra, succinite gives optimism and helps cope with depression, improves mood. Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn are not recommended to wear amber jewelry. “Fire stone” will suppress the energy of earth signs. Amber is ideal for hot-tempered, expressive people. The stone will balance these qualities and “absorb” excess energy.

Is Amber a Gemstone or Not?

From the point of view of gemology, succinite belongs to organogenic precious stones. If we consider the issue from the perspective of legislation, then the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 41 “On Precious Metals and Stones” states that unique amber formations in natural and processed forms are classified as precious.

Compatible with other stones

When combining stones, it is best to take into account their belonging to one or another element. Thus, amber does not get along with rubies, sapphires and other minerals of the corundum group. · According to magical and zodiac characteristics, amber is well compatible with coral, pearls, and topaz. · An excellent tandem can be achieved with citrine, garnet, and olivine.

Where is amber used?

Already in ancient times, amber was an important item of exchange. Residents of the coastal regions of the Baltic learned to process stone back in the fourth millennium BC. Figurines in the form of animals and humans, amulets and jewelry were made from frozen resin. In Ancient Rome, small amber utensils were popular: wine vessels, incense bottles, dishes. Homer’s Odyssey mentions the use of precious material in the manufacture of palace decoration elements. Weapons were inlaid with amber, which is confirmed by archaeological excavations. Nowadays, amber is actively used in jewelry, framed in silver and platinum. Amber earrings, pendants, bracelets, rings, and cufflinks look beautiful. In addition, watches and cigarette holders are made from stone, and boxes and paintings are decorated with it. Amber crumb is used both for medicinal purposes and for agricultural needs. Transparent stones often become components of medical equipment.

Interesting Facts

· In 2014, on the island of Sumatra, Indonesian miners found a piece of amber weighing 80 kg. After studying, experts determined the age of the stone, and the figure was impressive – after all, 25 million years. Now the amber giant is in one of the museums in Copenhagen. · Amber is formed over millions of years and its formation requires special conditions – the soil must be dry and contain a large amount of oxygen. · Among the most expensive stones, three samples can be distinguished. One of them preserved a whole frog, another a ten-centimeter lizard, and the third a chameleon 7 cm long.

How to distinguish natural amber from a fake

There are different imitations of “sunstone”, some of them quite accurately copy natural stones. Such examples include bernite, made from a mixture of various polyester resins with the addition of amber powder. After heat treatment, bernite acquires a strong visual resemblance to the original. The origin of a stone can be determined by a number of features: · Color. In natural samples it is always rich. · Smell. Real amber does not smell of anything, but the imitation may have a slight herbal or synthetic plastic smell. · Static electricity. If you rub a stone on clothing, it will become electrified and attract surrounding light objects: paper, thread, hair. · Buoyancy. True succinite floats in salt water and sinks in fresh water. · Luminosity. Natural stones have the property of fluorescence, that is, they glow under the influence of ultraviolet rays. At the same time, amber can emit both white and blue light. Some varieties lose their transparency when exposed to light, acquiring a milky structure. The best way to determine authenticity is to weigh the stone and measure its density. However, such a check will require special equipment, which may not be at hand.

How to store and care for stone

The stone is of organic origin and therefore requires careful handling and care. It is best to store amber jewelry in a closed box made of natural material. It is advisable that there be soft upholstery inside – this way the stone will retain its smoothness. When storing, it is important to ensure that the stones are not located too close to heating appliances and air conditioners. It is worth protecting the gem from exposure to high temperatures. Due to a sudden change, the cured resin may change color, crack, or even crumble. It is better not to keep stones next to other jewelry – such proximity may cause the amber to darken. It is undesirable for amber to come into contact with the skin for a long time – this has a bad effect on the appearance of the stone. Perfumes, cosmetics, and household chemicals have a destructive effect on the amber structure. Amber is easily deformed, and under strong mechanical stress it can even crack. Therefore, it is worth protecting amber products from falls and scratches; it is important to handle them as carefully as possible. Caring for amber is also important. It is best to clean the gem using water or saline solution: one teaspoon of salt per 250 ml glass of water. You can also wash amber jewelry with regular running water at room temperature. After this, the product must be dried, wrapped in clean cloth. It is better to wipe down jewelry after each use.
– Any soft fabric will do for this. With proper care, amber will last a long time
will retain its original appearance and will delight you with its beautiful shine and brightness. Benevolent Sunstone suits all zodiac signs except Taurus. The reason for the incompatibility is the self-sufficiency, power and proximity of the sign to the earth, which amber, like the hot sun, turns into a desert. Taurus should not refuse the gift of amber jewelry; giving the item to a daughter, friend or relative of another sign is the correct decision, from an astrological point of view. The love and good wishes of the donor in this case are doubled by the warmth of the family Taurus. For other signs, it is important to choose the right shade, texture and place to wear the stone! a lion – the positive influence of amber on representatives of this sign is expressed as clearly as possible! The sun in the elements of fire and amber are an ideal duet that can conquer new heights of business and even help win a gold medal at the Olympics! Health problems? You won’t find a better organic biostimulator! People born in the early days of the Leo sign prefer to choose transparent stones with less intensity of yellow and red colors. The closer the date of birth is to Virgo, the brighter and more saturated the shade of the necklace is selected. Vesam It is preferable to buy jewelry made of amber and gold. Their color and shape can be any, touch the stone, try on the jewelry, don’t doubt it, your intuition will not deceive you! Scorpions You will like large rings and processed nuggets with inclusions of rich honey, greenish, and orange colors. Place the stone on your desk or in the living room by the sofa, while relaxing, hold it in your hands, look at the inclusions frozen in prehistoric resin, and recharge with positive energy. Sagittarius Astrologers recommend raw nuggets, bracelets and necklaces with round beads, close in color to the sign planet Jupiter. Jewelry made from white with orange stripes is a smart astrological choice for Sagittarius. Capricorns prefer to choose 2 options:

  • earrings, necklace, pendant with beige cloudy amber – for going to the theater, cocktail party;
  • a set with a honey transparent gem without inclusion – to raise vitality and solve complex issues.

By air Aquarius It’s better to choose amber processed using the cabochon technique with many bubbles forming a fancy pattern.

Pisces It’s worth taking a closer look at the Baltic gem, as transparent as clear water. Rare blue amber or light green Buranite fits the sign perfectly. Paired oblong jewelry (earrings, double ring), shaped like a fish, will enhance the positive effect on the owner’s aura.

Aries – the fiery representative of the horoscope does not tolerate cloudy structure, cloudiness and halftones! Products with amber for Aries should burn and sparkle from the inside, surprising with the purity and richness of orange and yellow color.

Gemini – according to statistics, people of this sign most often buy a sun stone. The dual soul of Gemini is equally disposed to the calm warm and cold dark brown and black shades of the gem.

Amber is a talisman recognized in all cultures, absorbing negative emotions, it temporarily darkens, becomes cloudy and is reborn again, surprising with its pristine beauty.

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