Geological classification

Why did mica get a second name, muscovite?

According to the generally accepted definition, Muscovite (English muscovite, from Muscovy – Muscovy – the ancient name of Russia, from where large sheets of this mineral called “Moscow glass” were exported to the West), is a rock-forming mineral from the group of micas of the subclass of layered silicates. Other names for the mineral and its varieties: Moscow star, potassium mica, white mica, sericite, antonite, leukophyllite. Tabular crystals of monoclinic system. The basal cleavage is very perfect. Muscovite easily splits into the thinnest sheets, which is determined by its crystalline structure, composed of 3-layer packages of 2 sheets of silicon and aluminum-oxygen tetrahedra, connected through a layer composed of octahedra, in the center of which are located Al ions, surrounded by 4 oxygen ions and 2 OH groups ; 1/3 of the octahedra are not filled with Al ions. The packages are connected to each other by potassium ions. Hardness on the mineralogical scale 2,5 – 3; density 2760-3100 kg/m3. Muscovite is usually colorless, less often light brown, pale green and other colors; The luster is glassy, ​​on the cleavage planes it is pearlescent and silvery. Hidden scaly masses with a silky sheen are called sericite. Muscovite is widespread; is a component of igneous as well as metamorphic rocks: granites and granite pegmatites, syenites, greisen, crystalline schists, gneisses. In pegmatite veins it occurs in the form of large crystals and clusters up to 1-2 m in diameter, which are of industrial importance. Field
On the Kola Peninsula and in Eastern Siberia (Mamskoye, Kanskoye); abroad – in India, the Malagasy Republic, Canada, the USA, Brazil. Application
The most important practical property of muscovite is its high electrical insulating qualities. In industry, muscovite is used in the form of mica sheets (for insulators, capacitors, telephones, etc.), mica powder (in the manufacture of roofing felt, mica cardboard, fire-resistant paints, etc.) and mica products (for electrical insulating gaskets in electrical appliances). Varieties
– Sericite is a term used to describe fine-grained white mica (muscovite or paragonite). Sericites are often characterized by high SiO2, MgO and H2O content and low K2O content compared to muscovite. Fine-grained samples that differ from muscovite in containing some or all of the above constituents may be classified as phengite, hydromuscovite, or illite.
– Phengite is used to designate muscovites in which the Si:A1 ratio is greater than 3:1; and usually an increase in the Si content is accompanied by the replacement of A1 in octahedral positions with Mg or Fe+2.
– Mariposite is a variety of phengite with a high Cr content.
– Alurgite is used to designate phengites with noticeable Mn content.
– Fibrous magnesian hydromuscovite, called gumbelite, was studied by Aruja (1944).
—The term illite seems to be the least defined; it is commonly used to designate micaceous minerals and to designate minerals with interlayered packages of micas and clay minerals. Medicinal properties
In folk medicine, there is an opinion that muscovite can be used for skin diseases, to get rid of acne and flaking. Some lithotherapists suggest that this mineral can positively influence the functioning of the endocrine system. It is believed that muscovite bracelets can serve as a preventative against thyroid diseases. Magical properties
It is believed that white and gray muscovite protect its owner from the danger of freezing. Brown and yellow attract financial luck and success in all endeavors. Green stone influences a person’s inner world – it makes him nobler, calmer and kinder. The pink mineral attracts mutual love, revives cooled marital feelings, and creates harmony in the life of its owner. Astrologers believe that muscovite can be worn by all zodiac signs except Scorpio and Libra. The gem simply does not feel people born under these signs, and therefore cannot be useful to them. Talismans and amulets
As a talisman, muscovite protects its owner from moral injury and physical violence.
source Albite is sodium feldspar. The color of the mineral is most often gray with various shades. Colorless crystals are found. The shine is glassy. Hardness – 6,0-6,5; density – 2,62 g/cm3. Main deposits: USA, Canada, Sweden, Norway, etc. Medicinal properties
There is an opinion that albite is an excellent means of preventing kidney diseases, diseases of the liver, spleen and pancreas. Lithotherapists recommend applying the mineral to the sore spot immediately after taking the medication and lying down for a few minutes (about 15-20), completely relaxed. They say that during this time the stone absorbs the disease, so after the procedure it needs to be held under running water for 5 minutes to wash away the negativity extracted by albite from the human body. After this, the stone can be used again. Magical properties
Albit is a conductor of the energy of the Moon and the Sun. Astrologers advise having not one, but two stones (including in the form of products). In the Chinese Feng Shui method, designed to harmonize a person’s inner life and relationships with the outside world, this mineral is used to determine the excess of Yin or Yang energy. To achieve harmony, a person must have equal amounts of these energies. Albit is able to neutralize the excess of one energy and add that energy that a person does not have enough (in the physical body, soul, thoughts, home). Lunar albite adds Yin energy, solar albite adds Yang energy. Lunar and solar minerals can be made by “walking” stones in the rays of moonlight and sunlight. One stone should be placed on the windowsill on the night of the new moon, including the full moon (put it in the box during the day), the other stone should be placed from dawn to dusk during the same period. People born under any zodiac sign can own products made from albite. Talismans and amulets
As a talisman, paired albites help the owner to have a wise, philosophical attitude towards everything that happens in his life. They cleanse a person and his home from negativity from the outside.
source According to the generally accepted definition, Columbite (from the Latin columbium – Columbia, the name used in the USA (see USA) for niobium), a mineral from the columbite – tantalite group, which unites complex oxides such as AB2O6. Minerals of this group form isomorphic series: FeNb2O6 – MnNb2O6 (columbite itself) and FeTa2O6 – MnTa2O6 (tantalite itself). Columbites include members of isomorphic series in which niobium (in weight %) predominates over tantalum. There are such varieties of columbite as columbite-tantalum and ferrocolumbite. There are minerals with admixtures of tin and tungsten. Another name for the mineral is niobite. Varieties of columbite are tantalocolumbite (20-40% Ta2O5), ferrocolumbite (FeO: MnO > 3:1), manganocolumbite (MnO: FeO > 3:1), magnesiocolumbite (FeO MnO), ixiolite (up to 13% SnO2). In addition to the main components, columbite almost always contains impurities of Ti, W and rare earth elements, as well as U, Th, Zr. Columbite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. The structure is based on the densest hexagonal (two-layer) packing of oxygen atoms, in the alternating layers of which the octahedral voids are alternately occupied by (Nb, Ta) and (Fe, Mn). The crystals are short-prismatic, thin-lamellar or tabular. The color is black, brownish-black, less often reddish-brown (manganocolumbites). Main deposits: deposits are confined to granites and pegmatite veins. Columbite is associated with quartz, mica, feldspar and other minerals. Columbite is a characteristic mineral of ankerite carbonatites. Significant accumulations have been established in Germany (Bavaria), Sweden, Greenland, the USA (Connecticut, Colorado and South Dakota) and Africa (Northern Nigeria). In Russia it is found in Siberia, the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and the Urals. Color black, semi-metallic luster. Hardness 6–6,5 on the Maos scale, density 5,2 g/cm3. Medicinal properties
In folk medicine, it is believed that columbite can increase blood pressure. Some healers suggest that this mineral helps with colds caused by hypothermia. Magical properties
Since ancient times, it has been believed that columbite protects its owner from danger, protects against evil spells, gives courage, gives confidence in oneself and the future, saves from infidelity, exposes the machinations of enemies, detects lies and fraud. Like all black stones, columbite is associated with black magic. Sorcerers have long used it to protect themselves from evil forces while performing magical rituals. Protects the stone and the home of its owner. It reflects the negativity that penetrates the house and returns it to where it came from (for example, if someone is desperately jealous of the owner of the stone and wishes him all sorts of troubles, columbite will catch a clot of negative energy and send it to the ill-wisher). Experts say that columbite should not be worn by women; it only helps men. Teenagers should not wear it either – columbite can make them overly aggressive. Astrologers recommend wearing columbite in the form of cufflinks and tie clips. The stone can only be worn in a ring by military personnel and lawyers. The mineral is ideal for air (Libra, Aquarius, Gemini) and water signs (Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces). Earth signs (Capricorn, Taurus, Virgo) can wear it only if their professional activities are related to trade transactions. Columbite is contraindicated for fire signs (Aries, Leo, Sagittarius). It can strengthen their natural bad tendencies (anger, deceit, aggressiveness). Talismans and amulets
Columbite is an ideal talisman for the military. It is believed that the stone protects its owner from injury, gives him courage, and helps him make quick and correct decisions in difficult times. Application. Columbite serves as a raw material for the production of niobium and tantalum.

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Delivery cost: 400 rubles Muscovite is a rock-forming mineral belonging to the category of dioctahedral micas. Its structure is potassium and aluminum aluminosilicate with hydroxyl. The chemical formula of the stone is KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2. Unlike most other natural minerals, muscovite is not a jewelry material. Its main area of ​​application is electronics and radio engineering. Some varieties are used to make optical glass.

Physical properties of the mineral

Mica has been known to people since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, its main supplier to European states was Muscovy, which the Italians called “Musca”. It is from this word that the name “muscovite”, used to refer to mica, comes from. For a long time, the British called the mineral “Muscovite glass.” Later, the stone began to be called potassium mica, white mica, cat silver, batchelorite, Moscow star, shernikite, antonite, etc. The mineral muscovite is a translucent mica whose color varies from completely transparent and white to green and brown. The crystal lattice of the rock is made up of tetrahedrons, forming endless rows. They are based on aluminum, silicon and water, connected to each other by potassium ions. Muscovite easily splits into thin elastic-flexible leaves. Since it is mica, its description is largely the same as talc. In order not to confuse these types of stones, you need to pay attention to their leaves. In talc they lack elasticity, and this is its main difference from muscovite. The physical properties of mica are manifested in very perfect cleavage and low hardness (only 2-2,5 units on the Mohs scale). Other distinctive features of the mineral are:

  • glass pearlescent luster;
  • elasticity;
  • refractive index – 1,6;
  • density about 3 g/cm³;
  • many-sided syngony;
  • high electrical insulating properties.

Types of mica, places of their extraction

Muscovite stone has several varieties, differing in chemical composition and properties.

Sericite is a dense, fine-flaky white mica with a high silicon content and a silky luster. Other names for the rock are episericite and lepidomorphite. Sericite is often found near gold, copper and other types of mineralization. Samples of the mineral intergrown with quartz are valuable raw materials for the porcelain industry. Sericite is difficult to melt and does not decompose in acids. It is of hydrothermal and metamorphic origin. Occurs in beresites, quartzites, phyllites and sericite schists.

Phengite is a mineral with a high silicon content. At the same time, aluminum in its structure is often replaced by magnesium or iron. Phengite with a large amount of chromium is called mariposite. Stones containing manganese are called alurgites.

Fuchsite is a layered silicate containing chromium oxide. These stones are characterized by high elasticity and refractoriness. Fuchsite has a rich emerald green color. Mining of the mineral is carried out mainly in chromium deposits.

Gumbelite is a magnesian hydromuscovite with a fibrous structure. Previously it was considered a type of pyrophyllite, but today it has been definitively proven that it belongs to mica. The mineral is gray in color. It is mined in carbonaceous shales of Karelia.

Damurite is a partially hydrotized, white-colored, fine-scaled or dense sericite that constitutes the parent rock of staurolite or kyanite.

Roscoelite is a very rare, fine-scaled variety of muscovite, olive green, brown or black in color with a pearlescent sheen.

Gilbertite (gilbertite) is a fine-scaled or cryptocrystalline form of mica with a green color. Found in ore and pegmatite veins.

Mica is a mineral mined in many countries, but its main supplier, as in ancient times, is Russia. The largest stone deposits in our country are located in Eastern Siberia and the Kola Peninsula. Abroad, muscovite is mined in Brazil, Canada, the USA, India and Madagascar. Minor deposits of the sericite mineral are found in Kazakhstan, Turkey, Germany, Switzerland, Peru, Japan, Australia, Greenland and Antarctica.

Application of muscovite in industrial production

Muscovite is an excellent dielectric, widely used as a direct current insulator. Large-crystalline varieties of stone are used in the production of radio and electrical goods. The mineral is used in the creation of modern energy plants. Electrical insulating gaskets made from it are used in the manufacture of electrical devices. Muscovite sheet serves as a raw material for the production of capacitors and telephones.

Mica is used to make powder, which is subsequently used to make building materials, heat-resistant paints, car tires and glass, mica cardboard, wallpaper, and writing paper. Mica-muscovite is a component of grinding stones and lubricants. In the metallurgical industry, windows for blast furnaces are made from the mineral.

The use of mica is a necessary condition for the creation of mycalex, a heat-resistant material obtained from a mixture of muscovite and fusible glass. Its use makes it possible to create circuit boards, inductor combs, high-power lamp holders and other parts used in modern electrical and radio equipment.

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